Role in Terrorism Against the U.S.A
Reports from diverse sources describe a Pakistani role in most foreign
terrorist attacks directed against the United States in the past decade. Through
the template of logic set out by British Prime Minister Anthony Blair, these
reports show that the responsibility for the terrorist atrocities of Sep. 11,
2001 rests upon the Pakistani junta.
thousand one hundred and fifteen people and nineteen terrorists are presumed
dead in the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. [ABC010927]
indicates substantial uncertainty about the true identities of several of the
terrorists – including the alleged leader. Moroccan-born French citizen
Zacarias Moussaoui, who has claimed that he knows all about the “9/11” plot,
is on trial accused of being trained as a 20th hijacker and
co-conspirator. French authorities [ABC020905] indicate that Moussaoui was to be
in a second wave of attacks on embassies in early 2002, after an aborted 1994
plot to fly an airliner into the Eiffel Tower. The Moussaoui indictment
[Chertoff020716] traces his alleged movements and contacts. The word “Pakistan”
occurs with remarkable frequency.
other person who is widely perceived to be knowledgeable about the conspiracy is
Pakistan dictator Pervez Musharraf. He has recently commented [Hilton020808]
that the sophistication of the 9/11 plot was far beyond the capabilities of
Osama bin Laden as he knew him. Freudian slip or not, this agrees with several
media reports regarding the involvement of Pakistani entities in most plots,
attempts and actual terrorist attacks upon the United States in the last decade.
This paper suggests that despite its impact, the 9/11 plot should be viewed as
one of many contemporary plots. The number and diversity of the plots and the
ties between the various entities involved, draw a picture quite different from
that of a lone mad preacher inciting followers to suicide. The picture is rather
one of a criminal enterprise which functions to enrich its principals through a
well-diversified portfolio of sub-enterprises, powerful marketing,
terror-for-hire contracts and a protection / cooperation racket.
no novelty in linking the 9/11 atrocities with other terrorist attacks around
the world. British Prime Minister Anthony Blair’s presentation to Parliament
[Blair011007] of Her Majesty’s evidence against Osama bin Laden, Al Qaeda and
the Taliban, was acclaimed for its articulation of the Western Allies’ case
for military action against Afghanistan. This document serves as a template for
the logic used in pinning responsibility for terrorist atrocities. In this
paper, this evidence is followed one level beyond where Mr. Blair stopped. The
paper then discusses reports which fill some of the gaps in the puzzle regarding
the motives, planning, logistics, funding, execution, cover-up and follow-up of
the 9/11 atrocities – and the implications thereof.
following generalities appear essential to the 9/11 crimes:
The attacks required funding beyond what the hijackers may have earned
The hijackers had trained to maneuver large, fast aircraft precisely at
Diverse in age, nationality and background, the perpetrators had trained
as teams, with commonality in indoctrination and motives – but a large
diversity in specialist training.
Extreme violence was part of their modus operandi to subdue and
dominate planeloads of crew and passengers – some of whom must have realized
the nature of the hijackers’ intents. This indicates substantial training in
tactics, weapons and procedures.
The symmetric, concentric collapse of the twin towers, though burned into
our memories, was not imagined a priori, and is being investigated as a
surprise to designers. Airliner impact might have been expected to topple the
upper stories. In that event, the death toll would not have approached the
threshold for weapons of mass destruction. Thus the conspirators may not have
anticipated the global consensus for a military cleanup of Afghanistan. In other
words, one should not assume that the 9/11 plot was intended as the grand
finale of Al Qaeda. It may merely have been a plot chosen for media and
observations are consistent with the model of a global terrorist enterprise
carrying out attacks on a continuing basis, with a clientele of supporters, a
portfolio of plots and a system of financial incentives maintaining a
quasi-professional force. A part of this model fits “Al Qaeda”, but only as
an arm of the larger enterprise.
Evidence Presented by British Prime Minister Blair
Let us follow Mr.
Blair’s line of reasoning, and apply his logic to other facts. We will use
direct quotes where necessary, condensed without distorting their original
meanings. Variations in spellings of names and organizations between authors,
are left in tact. Quoting [Blair011007]:
“The clear conclusions reached by the (UK) government are: Usama Bin
Laden and Al Qaida .. planned and carried out the atrocities on 11 September
2001; (they) were able to commit these atrocities because of their close
alliance with the Taleban régime, which allowed them to operate with impunity
in pursuing their terrorist activity.” Unlike this paper, Mr. Blair
stopped short of asking: “Who made, trained and continues to support the
Taliban?” Below, we examine the events and evidence cited by Mr. Blair.
of Al Qaeda
out that Al Qaeda and its global terror network had existed for over 10 years,
founded and led by bin Laden. The network included “training camps,
warehouses, communication facilities and commercial operations” and a
trade in illegal drugs, raising significant sums of money. Blair also pointed to
Laden’s periods of stay in Afghanistan, as well as his “fatwas” against
Al Qaeda’s origin, the New York Times reports [NYT020609] that “the
organization that eventually evolved into Al Qaeda ...began as the Makhtab al
Khadimat, the Office of Services, in Peshawar, Pakistan,.." Osama Bin
Laden has been sponsored and protected by Pakistan since the 1980s. According to
[Raman990701], Laden led a savage tribal rampage in Gilgit/Baltistan areas of
Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, under the command of Pervez Musharraf, the protege of
Islamist Pakistan dictator Zia ul Haq, crushing a popular agitation for rights.
Later he accompanied Pakistan-equipped Islamist forces fighting the Soviets, and
then against the more secular of the Afghan Mujaheddin Alliance forces who drove
out the Soviet-backed regime. As the Soviet occupation ended, he turned his
attention on the US. Between 1992 and ’96, Taliban (meaning “student”)
forces led and equipped by the Pakistan Army routed the ragtag, exhausted,
ill-equipped Afghan Alliance survivors of the war against the Soviets, and
conquered 95% of Afghanistan, bringing it under mediaeval Islamic Law. Taliban-controlled
Afghanistan was the “Strategic Depth” of Pakistan, a private backyard to
conduct activities which would be hard to hide or protect in Pakistan. On the
run from US-pressured Sudan, Yemen and Saudi Arabia, Osama bin Laden was brought
in 1996 to Jalalabad, reportedly in a Pakistan Air Force C-130, with some of his
wives and offspring. The Governor of Jalalabad province was a Pakistani-backed
drug lord [Rashid2001], [Quadir2002]. (Note: this person was later appointed to
the cabinet of Mr. Hamid Karzai, and assassinated in July 2002).
Bin Laden issued his 1996 “fatwa” against the US from Jalalabad. The
1998 fatwa was issued from Peshawar, Pakistan. In censored, military-run
Pakistan, where political activity requires military permission, bin Laden was
able to preach, recruit and incite for the jehad – showing the complete
acquiescence if not participation of Pakistani governments for over 10 years.
The Afghan drug trade operates through Pakistan. From [DAWN991008]: “Afghanistan
smuggling drugs via Pakistan..70 per cent of the world opium was being produced
in Afghanistan, a major portion of which was supplied to the international
market through Balochistan. “ Presumably, the Pakistan Army got its cut.
links between Al Qaeda and the Taliban
cited Laden’s ties to the Taliban, including a “close and mutually
dependent” military alliance, and that the Taliban’s “strength would be seriously weakened without .. Laden’s
military and financial support” including presence in the command
The Taliban had a much closer and
dependent, subordinate relationship with Pakistan’s military leaders, having
come to power on the strength of Pakistani firepower, air power and officer
corps. In November 2001, it became obvious that up to 90 percent of the
“foreigners” of the Taliban were experienced Pakistani military personnel.
From [NYT011208]: “Pakistani military advisers were withdrawn from
Afghanistan over the following weeks, a ..crucial factor in the surprisingly
swift collapse of Taliban forces when confronted by the Northern Alliance…
“We did not fully understand the significance of Pakistan's role in propping
up the Taliban until their guys withdrew and things went to hell fast for the
Talibs." From [Etel010930]:
“Twice he attended Taliban training camps .. run by Arabs as well as
Pakistanis. The first one ..lasted 10 days in the Yellow Desert in Helmand
province, a place where Saudi princes used to hunt, so it has its own airport.
It was incredibly well guarded and there were many Pakistanis there, both
students from religious schools and military instructors. The Taliban is full of
The mechanisms for arming the Taliban are glimpsed in [VanNiekerk020130] for conventional weapons, and [Mintz020802] for advanced/ nuclear weapons. In both cases, the negotiators and
technical people are identified as Pakistanis with official titles.
in Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and Yemen
accused Laden of claiming credit for the deaths of 18 US soldiers in Somalia in
October ’93, the 224 deaths and over 5000 wounded in the bombings of the US
embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August ’98, and the 17 dead and 40 wounded
in the attack on USS Cole in October 2000. He accused Laden’s lieutenant Atef
of training the Somalis for the ’93 attack.
was to Pakistan that the principal suspects, including Ramzi Youssef, flew
“home” after each of these attacks, regardless of their nominal
nationalities. Some have been arrested under American pressure. As recently as
July 2002, Sheikh Ahmed Salim, a 33-year-old Kenyan, who had a $25 million price
tag on his head, was arrested in Karachi [Kenya020905]. Pakistani Mullah Masood
Azhar, leader of the terrorist group Jaish-e-Muhammed [WN020225], is named as an
organizer of the 1993 Somalia attacks on US peacekeepers [Mherald020226].
of Weapons of Mass Destruction
[Blair011007]: “ From the early
1990s Usama Bin Laden has sought to obtain nuclear and chemical materials for
use as weapons of terror. “
Blair might have added: “With the active help of the Pakistani nuclear
establishment.” US investigators confirmed that six top-level officials of the
Pakistani nuclear establishment were members of “Ummah Tameer Nau” (U.T.N.),
a group affiliated with Al Qaeda, and were participating in planning nuclear
terror attacks [NYT011209]. The Taliban’s minister(s) were given tours of the
Pakistani nuclear establishment, and the workings and requirements of nuclear
weapons programs explained to them. From [NYT011209]: “According to the
(CIA), (Dr. Bashiruddin) Mahmood (Former Chief of the Pakistan Atomic Energy
Commission) and another nuclear scientist, Chaudry Abdul Majid, met with bin
Laden in Kabul a few weeks before 9/11... U.S. pressure got the scientists
detained in late October, and they admitted having provided bin Laden with
detailed information about weapons of mass destruction…. General Hamid Gul —
a former ISI director with pronounced anti-American, radically Islamist views
— identified himself as U.T.N.'s "honorary patron" and said that he
had seen Mahmood during his trip to brief bin Laden.”
In 1998, the FBI foiled an arms purchase
attempt in Florida [Wpost020801], [NBC0207], [Dherald020803], involving
Pakistani intelligence service (ISI) personnel, diplomats and a consulting
Pakistani nuclear scientist. The items sought included Stinger shoulder-fired
anti-aircraft missiles, and heavy water for use in nuclear reactors. A
Canadian expert on radical Islam has claimed that Pakistanis smuggled “dirty
nuclear bombs” into Canada [WN020320] and 3 of them across the border in the
US, and are waiting for orders to set them off.
[Blair011007] cited Al Qaeda’s network of terrorist organizations
including “Egyptian Islamic Jihad and other
north African Islamic extremist terrorist groups, and a number of other jihadi
groups in other countries including the Sudan, Yemen, Somalia, Pakistan and
India”, as well as cells in other
countries. However, most
activities are eventually traced to orders and training emanating and
coordinated from Pakistan [See Table 1]. The
UK hosted a large concentration of Al Qaeda forces and fund-raising and
publicity resources [AK47UK]; [TOI011014]; invariably traced to Pakistani
motivators. The international scope of the terror enterprise developed by
Pakistan is described in [Weaver 9805]: "Even today you can sit at the
Khyber Pass and see every color, every creed, every nationality, pass.. To make
contacts with Islamists from North Africa!..”
[Blair011007] then listed Al Qaeda’s business and financial transactions
and camps in “Afghanistan, Pakistan, the
Sudan, Somalia and Kenya for the use of… terrorist groups”, with at least 4 of 12 camps in Afghanistan used for
training terrorists. While bin Laden may have made deals, it is clear that there
are large and powerful streams of personnel, technical expertise, security and
funding behind Al Qaeda. [IndUK020721], [Yomari990107]
and [CNN980822] are examples of numerous reports of many more such camps
located in Pakistan and Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir, all run by the Pakistan Army
and the ISI under Pak Lts. Gen. Aziz Khan, Javed Nasir, Mohammed Ziauddin and
Mehmood Ahmed. Former US Ambassador Dennis Kux states [Kux2002] that “Instead
of closing down the cross-border terrorist apparatus, Pakistan merely moved many
of the Kashmir-bound terrorists to Afghanistan, changed the ISI chief and "privatised"
the cross-border terrorism with continued ISI help”. From [IA2002] “All
recruits from Pakistan, Kashmir, POK and Afghanistan were sent to the battle
front in Afghanistan for battle inoculation and also for advanced training in
the camps run jointly by Pakistan's ISI and Osama Bin Laden's Al Qaeda, in Khost,
Jalalabad and Kandahar”
modus operandi of 11 September was entirely consistent with previous attacks. Al
Qaida’s record of atrocities is characterised by meticulous long term
planning, a desire to inflict mass casualties, suicide bombers, and multiple
simultaneous attacks… Laden insisted that the need to attack the United States
excused the killing of other innocent civilians, Muslim and non-Muslim alike.”
This paper now examines events of which Her Majesty’s investigators may
have chosen to be ignorant.
Hijacking, Karachi 1986.
Flt.73 was hijacked at Karachi by a swarm of terrorists carrying AK47s, pistols,
grenades and plastic explosives [PanAm9101]. The flight crew exited through the
cockpit hatch, abandoning the flight attendants and passengers. The terrorists
murdered two Indian-American passengers. Pakistani authorities, like the Taliban
14 years later, provided less than minimal support for hostage negotiation or
help to the passengers but ensured that there would be no Indian or American
hostage rescue mission. Eventually, a Pakistani “commando” team
“stormed” the aircraft. Passengers cited them tossing grenades into a
crowded cabin rather than shooting at the hijackers. An Indian flight attendant,
cited for her heroism, was also killed, among several other casualties. The
hijackers served various prison terms, but some obviously were allowed to
escape. In August 2002, with their increased presence in Pakistan, the US
reopened the case and got a Jordanian national extradited to stand trial for
coordinated bombings, 1993
concept of simultaneous bombing attacks on several downtown buildings in a major
city was tried out in the central business district of Mumbai, India
[Sree001231], killing over 300 people and wounding thousands. Following Interpol
“Red Corner” notices, the notorious smuggler/ gangsters Dawood Ibrahim and
“Chota Shakeel” disappeared into Pakistan. In December 2001, Pakistan again
refused Indian demands to extradite them, claiming ignorance of their
whereabouts. A TIME correspondent reported that these fellows were living
comfortably in the same exclusive neighborhood as General Musharraf. From
[Anson0208]: “Ghulam Hasnain, the Karachi TIME stringer, had gone missing
the day before… the ISI had picked him up because of an expose he had written
on Dawood Ibrahim for a Pakistani monthly. “ From [SAT020803]: ”His
informative pieces on the ISI involvement in the Jihad mess got him in trouble.
Husnain went in and out of several detention and interrogation sessions before
he..” (escaped to the US).
Trade Center 1993, US airliners 1995, Tunisian Synagogue 2002
A truck bomb exploded in the parking garage under the WTC, killing
several people. Ramzi Youssef flew back to Pakistan the day of the bombing, but
was arrested and brought to the US for trial. An Egyptian cleric is also in jail
for the same plot. Youssef, and co-WTC bombing convicts Abdul
Hakim Murad and Wali Khan
were also implicated in a plot to bomb a dozen American airliners over the
Pacific in 1995. This plot unraveled when a suspicious fire in an apartment
exposed the bomb-making operation. [Laude010913]
describes the intent of this plot, Project Bojinka, as being to hijack US-bound
airliners over the Pacific and crash them into buildings. Ramzi
Youssef’s nationality is undetermined. However, in August 2002, citing the
interrogation of Abu Zubeidah, an Al Qaeda coordinator arrested from Faisalabad,
Pakistan, the FBI issued an “alert” for Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, Pakistani
“relative” of Ramzi Youssef, as organizer of the April 2002 suicide attack
on a Tunisian synagogue. The suicide bomber, Nawar, was traced to training camps
in Pakistan. Khalid Mohammed is said to be a link between the 1993 WTC bombings,
the 9/11 WTC attack, and the Tunisian synagogue bombing.
The LAX Millennium
Bombing Plot, 1999
This case came in for special
mention by [Blair011007]. The
case files [White010702]; [LAX010705]; [LAX010703] reveal the workings of the
lowest levels of the terror establishment. Ahmed Ressam, a petty thief of
Algerian origin, was recruited in Montreal and sent to Pakistan and then
Afghanistan for training. Returning, he was arrested on arrival from Canada by
ferry at Port Angeles near Seattle with a rental car containing a large bomb
(over 100lb of explosives), intended for Los Angeles international airport on
New Year’s Day 2000. He was convicted in April 2001 – news reports cited a
Pakistan International Airlines ticket stub as nailing the proof for the jury.
In exchange for consideration of a sentence reduction from 130 to 27 years, he
testified against co-conspirators including Abu Zubeidah, the coordinator in
Pakistan whom he had met on arrival at Karachi from Montreal.
From [LAX010703]: “Can you explain to the jury what Abu Zubeida
really was in connection with the camps? A. He is the person in charge of the
camps. He receives young men from all countries. He accepts you or rejects you.
And he takes care of the expenses of the camps. He makes arrangements for you
when you travel coming in or leaving.” From Ressam’s cross-examination
[LAX010705]: “Q. The reason you were going to call Jaffar in
Pakistan was so that you could take credit for blowing up the airport, correct?
A. Yes, to claim the responsibility for the job.” (Note: “Abu Jaffar”
was the leader of the Algerian Cell in Pakistan). From the chilling
testimony, it is clear that Ressam learned explosive chemistry, practised using
guns, RPGs, making bombs, blowing up airports, killing dogs with poison gas (to
simulate “Americans” and “Israel-supporters”) and putting cyanide on
doorknobs to kill “agents” and VIPs.
The LAX plot was by no
means isolated. [Anson0208] describes Pakistani Sheikh Mubarak Ali Shah
Gilani, as a leader of Jamaat ul-Fuqra ("The Impoverished")
described by the State Department's 1995 report on terrorism as dedicated
"to purifying Islam through violence". “Ul-Fuqra is said to have
recruited devotees from as far away as the Netherlands and had sent jihadis into
battle in Kashmir, Chechnya, Bosnia, and Israel. Since the early 1980s, ul-Fuqra
had also operated in the U.S. as.. Muslims of America, in 19 states .. linked
to.. money-laundering, arson, murder, and the 1993 attack on the World Trade
Center. Gilani ..was, for a time, based himself in the States, but now .. is
found in a walled compound in Lahore, Pakistan, where.. one of his visitors was
(accused Shoe Bomber) Richard C. Reid.”
From [WStand9906]: “FUQRA terrorism in
North America appears to have peaked in the early 1990s. In 1991, ..five men
were arrested at the Niagara Falls border crossing after U.S. Customs agents..
found photographs, floor plans, and videotapes of the interiors of the targets,
details of "recon team," "guard team," and "hit
team" roles, and a description of how "time delay" bombs could be
placed below the cinema floor. A
Canadian jury convicted three American Fuqra members of ‘conspiracy to commit
mischief endangering life.’ A fourth suspect, Max Lon Fongenie, who had
arrived. .from Pakistan shortly before the plot was set in motion, fled back to
Pakistan… Gilani's close ties to Kashmir and the ISI.. in July 1983, Stephen
Paul Paster, ..blew off most of one hand while planting a pipe bomb at a
Portland hotel.. escaped from a
hospital.. served 4 years of a 20-year prison sentence... suspected but not
charged in.. bombings in Seattle in 1984.. Now lives in Lahore, where U.S.
intelligence sources say he provides explosives training to visiting Fuqra
In presenting the
following, it is noted that accusations are not proof of guilt – several
post-911 horror stories have turned out to be the result of misunderstandings,
xenophobia and outright perjury. A Pakistani-American businessman [Dawn020711]
had his stores raided by law officers looking for evidence of money transfers
involving the Al Qaeda. An employee in one of his stores pleaded guilty to
having a false passport after a photo developing service told police that he had
been extremely anxious and in a hurry to get 25 photos developed of the World
Trade Center towers, 2 weeks before 9/11. A group of Pakistanis, under arrest on
immigration / fraud charges [Newsday020715]
were reportedly refusing to discuss why they purchased an industrial-size mixer
and set up a production facility under a false corporate name in summer 2001, or
how they disposed of the items. Another Pakistani immigrant is on trial.
According to [CNN020808], “Imran has confessed in court that he plotted to
blow up a bridge in Florida and Jewish synagogue”. From [LVS020808]: “Pakistani
immigrant pleaded guilty ..conspiring to bomb power stations, a National Guard
armory and Jewish-owned businesses... Mandhai and Jokhan hoped the bombings
would create chaos and they could make various demands..”
a Kuwaiti-born Canadian citizen in a plot to bomb the US embassy in Singapore: “Sometime
in 2000, Mansour Jabarah (the father of the suspect) said, Mohammed left Kuwait
for Pakistan ‘without my permission.. He was looking for Islamic studies in
English… Police are looking for my other son, Abdulhassan and I don’t know
where he is..’ “
above, accused “Shoe Bomber” Richard C. Reid was traced to the “Fuqra”
in Pakistan; associates arrested in France have been Pakistanis. On the alleged
“Dirty Bomb Plot”, [CNN020828] reports: “Jose Padilla,, researched how
to build a "dirty bomb" at an al Qaeda facility in Pakistan and
planned to use radioactive material stolen in the United States to construct the
"uranium-enhanced" device”. [CNN020616] reports the arrest of a
Pakistani national in the US, associated with the same plot.
Hijack-Murder on IC814
terror schools obviously learned from the PanAm73 experience – the new genre
of hijackers included trained pilots. At the end of December 1999, an Indian
Airlines Airbus 300 en route from Kathmandu, Nepal to New Delhi was hijacked by
a team of terrorists who were sitting in first class. They entered the cockpit
by rushing a flight attendant as the door opened for her to serve beverages.
They segregated the passengers and took several hostages to the forward cabin.
They subdued the crew and forced them to take off from Amritsar where the crew
had landed instead of Lahore, by slitting the throat of young Rupin Katyal –
and threatening more murders. The aircraft was flown to Dubai and then to
Kandahar, where the Taliban mounted anti-aircraft batteries and aimed tank guns
at the aircraft to deter hostage-rescue attempts by India. After a week-long
nightmare, India agreed to free 4 terrorists including Omar Shaikh Saeed, jailed
for kidnap and murder after killing a police officer who was rescuing western
hostages, Zagar, who murdered kidnap victims by tying hand grenades to them, and
Jaish-e-Mohammed leader Masood Azhar, jailed for illegal entry and terrorist
conspiracy. At the end of the standoff, the crew feigned equipment failure to
prevent the terrorists from retrieving their checked baggage – and were
surprised by the hijackers’ familiarity with the cockpit controls and
procedures. The Taliban allowed the hijackers and their freed associates to
escape to Pakistan, which denied knowledge of their entry. In 2002, Saeed and
one of the hijackers, Mansur Hasnain, were implicated in the kidnap-murder of
Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl. Mr. Saeed had been living at his
family home in Lahore with the full knowledge of the Pakistan government, and
apparently “surrendered” to the ISI a week before they revealed his presence
to police. [Ireact011108]: “Intelligence agencies are in possession of tape
transcripts of the conversations between (Pakistan Army Lt. Gen) Aziz and the
hijackers… it was on Aziz’s instructions that the hijackers demanded a
ransom in addition to the release of jailed terrorists for freeing the 155
hijacked passengers.” Proof of the planning of the hijacking was found in
a Kabul house in November 2001 [Rohde011206].
[Blair011007]: “The operatives
involved in the 11 September atrocities attended flight schools, used flight
simulators to study the controls of larger aircraft and placed potential
airports and routes under surveillance.” IC814 was obviously a dress
rehearsal for 9/11, also achieving the release of Omar Shaikh Sayeed and Mullah
Masood who would have further roles to play.
Blair’s grand declaration, “The modus operandi of 11 September was
entirely consistent with previous attacks” looks ironic – the Western
Allies were certainly given every opportunity to recognize that the Indian plane
was hijacked by Pakistan-backed terrorists. The IC814 attack demonstrated how to
get lethal weapons aboard an airliner in a nation where security searches
including X-raying of all baggage have been routine for a long time –
weapons were transferred in a diplomatic bag from a PIA flight on the tarmac –
a clear indication of official complicity at the PIA flight’s origin. The
technique for rushing the cockpit was demonstrated, as was the subduing of
passengers and crew by murdering an innocent in a most horrible manner – later
replicated on 9/11 [WN020130].
Simulators need expert instructors, with airline or Air Force experience. The
9/11 gang included one Saudi-licensed commercial pilot. The high-speed,
high-precision maneuvers executed by the terrorists are far beyond the
capabilities of armchair pilots. Amateur pilots with a few hours of flying
Cessnas or PC-based flight simulators do not get such results on the first
attempt – these were clearly people who had been trained for these precise
maneuvers by experts who knew combat flying and airliner flying – Air Force
veterans. It is known that PAF officers
have been on deputation to Saudi and UAE Air Forces as pilots and instructors,
and presumably had access to training on large aircraft.
quotes German investigators who place Atta and two accomplices at Afghan-based
Al Qaeda training camps from late 2000 to early 2001. [Etel010930] confirms that
the Afghan terror training camps had Pakistani military instructors and
[Rediff020717] and [Mir020711] reported FBI requests
to question PAF Squadron Leader Atif Ahmed bin Mansoor, and PAF refusal on the
grounds that he is a “responsible officer”. From [Mir020711] :
(Between 1997 and ‘99) “Atif and Atta lived and studied together at
..Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (TUHH), … after Atif left for
Pakistan, Mohamed Atta was frequently seen in the company of his first cousin,
Marwan Al-Shehhi, who had arrived 'almost as a replacement'.” Al-Shehhi,
Atta and another Hamburg graduate were among the gang presumed dead on 9/11. In
this connection, it is worthwhile to note that many of the 9/11 hijackers are
reported to have attended or signed up for flight schools in the US and
elsewhere – but none are reported to have actually demonstrated proficiency as
pilots of large aircraft. In fact, most are pooh-poohed for incompetence. One
hijacker is indeed reported to have had a Saudi commercial pilot license – but
had gone around failing basic flying courses in the US!
is useful to ask whether an organization known for “meticulous planning”
would depend on such hit-or-miss training of their spearheads. Atta and his PAF
classmate are reported to have won top honors at the technical school in
Hamburg. During the 9/11 hijackings, the terrorist
pilots showed high levels of proficiency in avoiding Air Traffic Control,
finding targets accurately, and zeroing in on the WTC Tower using a high-G turn.
In the Pentagon attack, the plane came in at 400 knots near-ground level. These
skills went far beyond those implied by their scattered piloting lessons, and
they worked in four teams with all the ruthless assurance of military squads. The
flight school stories appear to be ways of establishing false identities and
hiding the true piloting credentials of the terrorists and their military
[WSJ020701] reports on a
Spanish investigation: “Mohammed Atta met with five other suspected
Islamist terrorists in eastern Spain two months before Sept. 11….Atta.. met
with Ramzi Binalshibh .. in Tarragona on July 10, Spanish investigators said. ..
Mr. Binalshibh, who is now believed to be in Pakistan, had been denied a visa to
the U.S., where he had hoped to obtain a pilot's license. .. Said Bahaji, one of
Mr. Atta's roommates in Hamburg, Germany, may have attended the meeting as well.
Mr. Bahaji also is believed to be in Pakistan.” The Mideast news
channel Al Jazeera [AlJr020908] claims to corroborate this story and points out
that “Binalshibh” is actually Ramzi bin Al-Shaibah, associated with
Kuwaiti-born Pakistani passport-holder Khaled al-Sheikh Mohammad, whom they
describe as the chief of Al Qaeda's military operations. Note conflict with
earlier reports about Mohammed Atef holding that position. [Wp020911] follows up
on these stories and indicates that the 9/11 plot was proposed by Atta and his
classmates, and presented to the terror enterprise when Atta came to Pakistan in
late 1999. However, the first funding, indicating selection of the plot from the
portfolio, came in mid-2000, and this is where the first “smoking gun” piece
of evidence appears to fit in.
Gun #1: The Money Trail and Kidnap-Terror Links
[Blair011007]: “Since 1989, Usama
Bin Laden has established a series of businesses to provide income for Al Qaida,
and to provide cover for the procurement of explosives, weapons and chemicals,
and for the travel of Al Qaida operatives. The businesses have included a
holding company known as ‘Wadi Al Aqiq’, a construction business known as
‘Al Hijra’, an agricultural business known as ‘Al Themar Al Mubaraka’,
and investment companies known as ‘Ladin International’ and ‘Taba
report on Pakistani conduits for Al Qaeda funding. The “smoking-gun” accusation in the 9/11 investigation,
however, is a cell-phone call allegedly from Pakistan ISI Chief, Lt. Gen.
Mehmood Ahmed to terrorist Omar Shaikh Saeed, who then transferred $100,000 from
a UAE bank to Mohammed Atta in Germany before the 9/11 attacks. The call was
caught by Indian RAW (Research & Analysis Wing) agents monitoring Ahmed’s
(or Saeed’s) cell phone, and shadowing Saeed in a bookstore in Karachi.
[Mir020711] gives the transfer date in summer 2000, which fits later
American / German reports [CNN020710] of the terrorists’ banking records,
citing a $110K deposit as the earliest transaction – in 2000. On 9/10/2001,
Atta and one of the other hijackers are reported to have wired the remainder of
the money to the UAE (Atta reported to have wired $15,600), where Omar Shaikh is
said to have collected it and returned to Pakistan immediately. From the
American side of the transactions [LaTimes0110]: “The money trail to the Emirates
just before the Sept. 11 attacks consisted of wire transfers to a man identified
as Mustafa Ahmad, thought to be a financial officer in Al Qaeda.
Al-Shehhi wired $5,400 to Ahmad, (Shaykh Saiid) shortly before noon on
Sept. 10 from a Western Union office at the Greyhound bus terminal in
Boston,...Separately, suspected hijacker Waleed M. Alshehri sent $5,215 to Ahmad
from a currency booth at Boston's Logan Airport on the evening of Sept. 9. ..
Atta wired money to Ahmad on Sept. 8 and 9. The document is unclear on the
amounts, but Al Suweidi said it was like the others, about $5,000. Ahmad picked
up the transfers on Sept. 11 from the Al Ansari exchange in Sharjah... The same
day, Ahmad used a Saudi Arabian passport to fly from Dubai to Pakistan, Emirates
officials have said.” “Ahmad”
was apparently identified with photos of Omar Shaikh Saeed by staff at the
Ansari exchange. The source of these funds
poses further interesting questions discussed below, but the accusation against
Mehmood resulted in swift action to remove and protect him. Immediately
following the publication of these reports, Mehmood Ahmed was moved out of the
ISI chief post, but only to another post in the inner Corps Commanders’
Council which helps Musharraf rule Pakistan. [TOI011009] reported that the US
sought his removal after confirming the wiring of $100,000 to Mohammed Atta from
Pakistan by “Ahmed Umar Sheikh” at his instance.
might well ask why the original $100K payment would be made through traceable
channels. The answer may be that (a) the source had to be authenticated for Atta
to proceed and (a) the traceable party was Omar Shaikh Saeed, already a known
terrorist with Al Qaeda links, and thus expendable (he is supposedly on Death
Row now). Note that Saeed’s pseudonym for the transactions was “M.
Ahmad”. The cell-phone intercept of Pakistan ISI Chief General Mehmood
Ahmed was presumably secret until revealed to the FBI in late 2001 when its
significance became clear.
A further link in the
funding scheme came from arrests following the motorcycle drive-by murder of
policemen guarding the American Center in Kolkata, India in January 2002. Even
as India pointed to Pakistani links, Aftab Ansari, a kidnap-gang leader,
was reported to have claimed credit for this from safety in Dubai, as
“revenge”. Indian police had
shot his associate Asif Reza Khan, “trying to escape” after being arrested
for holding jeweler Bhaskar Parekh to ransom in November 2000. This prompted US
FBI Chief Robert Mueller, visiting India at the time, to declare that the
shooting appeared to be gang-related, not a terrorist attack on the US. The fun
ended when two of the motorcyclists were tracked down and surrounded. One died
in a shootout, the other was captured alive and interrogated. Using evidence
from Asif Reza Khan’s interrogation, Interpol issued a “Red Corner Notice”
against Ansari. Dubai acted quickly on this notice, arresting Aftab Ansari as he
tried to catch a PIA flight to Karachi with his Pakistani passport. Dubai
extradited him to India, where he confessed. From [TOI020123]: “CBI
Director P C Sharma told visiting FBI Chief Robert S Mueller that Ansari, who
claimed responsibility for Tuesday's attack, had taken a ransom of Rs 37.5
million to free (kidnap victim) shoe baron Parthapratim Roy Burman through
hawala channels to Dubai.. . Out of this amount, Omar Sheikh ..had sent $100,000
to Atta through telegraphic transfer..”.
There appears to be confusion in the media reports
on the timing of the $100K wire transfer (if there was only one). We presume
that “Al Ansari exchange” mentioned above in Sharjah, a half-hour’s drive
from Dubai, is owned by Mr. Ansari. The
link between Aftab Ansari, Omar Shaikh and the Pakistan ISI is discussed in
[Twk020322], and attributed to Ansari’s gang-member Asif in [TRIN020126], and
Ansari’s confession in [Trib020513] and [IPCS2002]. [Rediff020123] describes
how Ansari, Omar Shaikh Saeed and Masood Azhar met in prison. Mr. Burman was
kidnapped in July 2001 and released on Aug. 2, 2001 [Blonnet010803]. However,
Ansari’s specialties were kidnapping and arms deals, and he had no shortage of
wealth. [CNN020710] reports
that “one of the first transfers was $110,000 in 2000 to an account held by
Atta and Waleed Alshedri” – clearly this could not be from the ransom
money obtained in November 2000 or July 2001. [Mir020711]
also states that the Mehmood-Saeed wire of $100,000 to Atta occurred in
“summer 2000”, matching the above. Ansari’s confession stated that Omar
Shaikh Saeed introduced him at General Mehmood’s suggestion in mid-2000 to
“Professor” Hafeez Sayeed, leader of the Lashkar-e-Toiba terrorist
organization, and they jointly developed plots where kidnapping would fund terror activities. Azim Cheema, an L-e-T terrorist, is said
to have delivered the Pakistani passport and other documents for Ansari’s use.
Ansari confessed to several payments to Omar Shaikh Saeed, and to funding an
arms cache including 14kg of RDX, which was seized in Patan, India.
confusion regarding payments can be cleared by realizing that there were several
payments, totaling well over $325,000 and perhaps over $500,000 [CNN020710]. The
source may have been Al Ansari accounts, but the disbursements may have been
routed through the Middle East, Europe or the Caymans, using banking and
untraceable “hawala” channels. [CNN020710] reports how the 9/11 hijackers
opened bank accounts, giving false data in cities in the southern US including
SunTrust, a major Atlanta-based bank. A report from the Cayman Islands
[Cayman010916] speaks of a strange group appearing there, claiming to be Afghans
traveling on Pakistani passports – which could not be found. As the
authorities tried to find out from Pakistan and Britain about these men (with no
response from the Pak embassy), an anonymous writer sent a letter to a Cayman
media editor declaring that the men were terrorists bent on launching an attack
on the US – just before Sep. 11.
the above accounts, the Pakistan ISI Chief and terrorists under his control
appear to have been much closer to the funding and implementation of the 9/11
plot than Osama bin Laden was. The links between the kidnapping / hijacking
ransoms and the 9/11 terrorists’ funding shows a very different tactic from
those attributed to bin Laden’s funding mechanisms. Clearly, the spy agency of
Pakistan would be in an excellent position to shake down international
kidnappers who depended on Pakistani protection and passports – and the ISI
Chief would have easy access to their accounts. The intercepted cell-phone call
is the only direct published tie to Musharraf’s junta – unless Omar
Shaikh Saeed talks to US investigators. Pakistan appears bent on preventing
this – supposedly having put Saeed on Death Row for the murder of Daniel
Pearl. Hafeez Sayeed, the L-e-T chief, has also disappeared, his wife having
filed a “habeas corpus” petition and the Pak authorities denying
feature of most Al Qaeda attacks is that the “project director”, a senior
terrorist officer, visits the target city – and leaves hours before the actual
event. After the 9/11 attack, a senior mullah was arrested at Heathrow airport
as he left a plane from the US – but nothing has been heard of that since.
There was, however, another senior officer present – General Mehmood Ahmed,
ISI Chief, was visiting the State Department when the attack on the Pentagon
occurred – and he had practically a direct view of the event.
From [Mateen010910]: "ISI Chief Lt-Gen. Mahmoud's week-long
presence in Washington has triggered speculation about the agenda of his
mysterious meetings at the Pentagon and National Security Council. .. most important meeting was with Marc Grossman, U.S. Under
Secretary of State for Political Affairs. One can safely guess that the
discussions must have centred around Afghanistan . . . and Osama bin
hint of ISI involvement in the 9/11 attack comes in the assassination of
Northern Alliance leader Ahmed Shah Masood on September 9 using a suicide bomb
in a TV camera, and hints on bin Laden’s whereabouts. According to [CBS0203],
bin Laden was reported to be in Pakistan for “medical treatment”. On the
night of Sep. 9, General Musharraf was at a party at ISI Headquarters, where he
met former ISI Chief, General Hamid Gul on his return from his weeks-long stay
in Afghanistan [JLA020610]. A clear link between the Algerian suicide bomber,
the TV-camera-bomb, and Pakistan has not yet been reported.
possible reason for the 9/09 “party” at ISI HQ has not been explored in the
media. The first of the payments from the 9/11 hijackers, signaling that they
had no further need for money in this world, was wired from Boston on 9/08 –
and the recipient in Sharjah would have known immediately. It must have been the
afternoon of the 9th in Pakistan. Why else were these payments,
relatively negligible sums, wired at such risk of eventual discovery? And why
by the same route by which the original $100K came? Which takes us to the
most frightening piece of evidence: the timing when the airlift of strategic
assets from Afghanistan was planned.
Gun #2: Transfer of assets from Afghanistan
On Sep. 12
(in Pakistan – late Sep. 11 in the US) all major Pakistani airports were
closed for several hours [Rind010915], [Raman010917]. Heavy military traffic was
reported. It was speculated that the senior officers from Afghanistan
and critical equipment / weapons were being brought home before American bombing
made travel impossible. The timing is extremely interesting when one considers
the lead-time needed for a large-scale airlift involving both people and heavy
equipment. The aircraft must have gone from Pakistan, and loaded men and
equipment gathered from all over Afghanistan with its primitive roads and
infrastructure, and returned to Pakistan. According to the Pakistani government
[Hilton020808] General Musharraf was at some evening public meeting when he was
informed of the attacks, and he dismissed them as something between the MidEast
Arabs and the US – leaving less than 12 hours before the airlift arrived in
Islamabad. When was this airlift planned? What does this imply about General
Musharraf’s foreknowledge of the 9/11 attacks? The Sep. 8 and 9 money
transfers from Boston [LATimes0110], conveying the “All Systems are Go!”
signal, serve to explain much of this miracle – but since Gen. Mehmood was in
the US at the time, this also implies a more direct information channel from
Omar Shaikh Saeed a.k.a. “Mustafa
Ahmad” to General Pervez Musharraf.
As the Americans made clear
their strategy of a close and intrusive embrace of Pakistan as opposed to a
standoff attack, there was a major fire at Pakistan Army Headquarters in
Islamabad [Sharma011011]. The records of Pakistan Army officers who had or were
now serving in Afghanistan were reported to have been conveniently lost.
A similarly unfortunate fire hit ISI HQ after the Mehmood Ahmed links
There have been several attacks on US
interests inside Pakistan before and since 9/11, including attacks on a prayer
hall inside the diplomatic complex and blasts outside the Consulate in Karachi.
We draw attention to attacks made outside Pakistan. On July 27, a US soldier was
killed and 4 wounded near Jalalabad by remote-detonated explosives. US teams
found “two electronic firing devices that could be set to a digital watch
or a radio and activated by remote control. The circuit boards .. were made in
Pakistan and similar devices had been used in other bombings and rocket attacks
on U.S. personnel.” [Mherald020828]
the link between the Pakistan Government and Global Terrorism
Reports abound on the
primary role of the ISI in the Pakistani / Afghan terrorist enterprise. [TOI011009], [Sharma011011], [Mintz020802], [ADB020725], [NYT011208],[IndUK020721], [Kux2002],
[Rashid010914], [UPI020129], [UPI020606] [ICG020729], all point to the clear
links and indeed the identity between the religious fundamentalist groups, the
terrorist groups, the Pakistan military and the ISI. What is left unstated is
the proof that General Musharraf himself, and his immediate junta, control the
ISI and give the orders. Fortunately, one needs to look no further than the
statements made by the dictator himself, and his immediate friends and
followers, to establish this link unambiguously. In [Lodhi020305] the Pakistani Ambassador to the US
declares that the ISI is an arm of the Pakistan government, and does nothing
without direct orders from the government.
[Sehgal0112] explains the
command structure of the ISI to emphasize the same point – the ISI does
nothing except to carry out the orders of the Pakistan government.
General Musharraf himself has
vehemently repeated the same. Quoting the General
[Hilton020808]: “Its unfortunate that the I.S.I. is targeted around the
world. It’s wrong and baseless. It does what the C.I.A. does, what RAW does,
Mossad. It does what the government wants it do to. It is not a government
within a government. The I.S.I. is manned by uniformed people. Especially when
they answer to a commander-in-chief. I am the commander-in-chief.” Thus
the question of transferring responsibility for the terrorist attacks from the
Al Qaeda to the Taliban and the other terror groups to the ISI to General
Musharraf can be declared as “Q.E.D.”
[Blair011007]: “ No other
organisation has both the motivation and the capability to carry out attacks
like those of the 11 September – only the Al Qaida network under Usama Bin
is respectfully suggested that the PM should re-examine the logic of this
statement, extending it one level higher. To quote General Musharraf
[Hilton020808]: “I didn’t think it possible that Osama sitting up there
in the mountains could do it. He was perhaps the sponsor, the financier, the
motivating force. But those who executed it were much more modern. They knew the
US, they knew aviation. I don’t think he has the intelligence or the minute
planning. The planner was someone else.”
on the other hand, is ruled by Musharraf’s military dictatorship which has
sent thousands of its people to death. The present junta used to be the junior
officers of the Pak Army as it conducted the genocide of over 3 million of their
own compatriots in East Pakistan in 1971 [Hrehman1971]. No other country in the
world has a military dictatorship controlling a nuclear arsenal, protecting an
enterprise of 10,000 “religious schools” which have produced 1.75 million
brainwashed youths unemployable for anything other than rabid acts of violence. And
Musharraf, most of all, has reason to hate the US. Rising through the ranks
as a protégé of Islamist dictator Gen. Zia ul Haq, and as mentor of Osama bin
Laden, Musharraf’s bitterness at the military defeat of 1971 was multiplied by
his failure in the battles of Siachen, and later in his grand plan to invade
Kashmir under nuclear cover in 1999. He blames the US for that last defeat.
President Clinton refused to back Pakistan, Musharraf’s entire Northern Light
Infantry Regiment got wiped out, and he escaped court martial only by conducting
his coup d’etat. Musharraf’s sidekick, Lt. Gen. Aziz, who was caught on tape
telling Musharraf in 1999 that he controlled the occupiers of the Kargil heights
(“we have the jehadis by the scruff of the neck”), is known as the
“COAS” of the “Pakistan Army of Islam”, a pseudonym for the Pakistan
Armed forces deputed to run the Islamic jehad in Afghanistan and Kashmir. In
1998, President Clinton’s cruise missiles retaliating for the Embassy attacks,
hit the Harkat ul Mujaheddin camps inside Pakistan, as much as those inside
with this bitterness is the prime motivation of the terror enterprise, which
must be financial. Pakistan appears to be controlled by two or three huge
financial organizations which operate for the benefit of the senior military and
their interests. Viewed as such, the various components of the terror enterprise
come together. The madarssas and the preachings of religious leaders such as
Masood Azhar and bin Laden generate the popular support and grassroots
fundraising. Rich businessmen, Mideast potentates and oil tycoons contribute to
the Cause, and successful terror attacks on the seemingly impregnable western
establishment impress these tycoons as much as they impress the recruit base of
Islamic youth from all over the world. Training camps and indoctrination centers
are essential to this enterprise, turning impressionable youngsters into suicide
terrorists. The “secular” military establishment focuses on organizing,
training and equipping these diverse components. An in-depth look at this
enterprise, and the identity of cause and command between the Al Qaeda, ISI, the
Pakistan Army of Islam and the Pakistan Armed Forces, is beyond the scope of
might also consider General Musharraf’s notion of honesty. When he declares
that “there is no cross-border terrorism” the General’s argument is that
the Line of Control is not an International Border – and the Indian State of
Jammu-Kashmir belongs to him anyway – and killing Indians is not terrorism to
him. Likewise, when he defends the ISI, his argument may be that the power
behind Al Qaeda is not the ISI – it is the Pakistan Army of Islam, an umbrella
group of senior officers encompassing the Armed Forces, the ISI, the terror
groups, the Taliban, Al Qaeda and the madarssas.
Pakistani government enthusiasm in terrorist arrests should be viewed against
this snippet from [Dtimes020724]: “The man who turned in Ramzi Ahmed Yousef
to the Americans was a Pakistani codenamed ‘Hamid,’ who now lives in the
United States with his wife and one child under the Witness Protection Programme,
richer by the two million dollars he received as his “finder’s fee.” This
perhaps accurately captures the motivation method which the US uses on the top
officers of the Pakistan junta – they have so far “found” the
Pakistan Northern Light Infantry Regiment which invaded Kargil and never
returned, the Taliban, the ten thousand Pakistani youths who went to
Afghanistan, and the thousands of Pakistani military men who perished in General
Rashid Dostum’s alleged “Container Express”. The madarssas and terror
groups are perhaps in line for similar “findings” by the Generals.
9/11/2001? Was it just the end of
the long preparations? The early report of Atta extending his house lease in
Florida by a month at the end of August, suggests an unexpected delay – or an
order to not renew for a longer lease (why, given that the lessor could do
nothing about an early termination?) Sep. 11 has been associated with the
anniversary of the US Congress accepting Jewish settlers’ claims to Palestine
in the 1920s – but what if the flying and media weather were not perfect and
the WTC / Pentagon were not clearly visible? Another explanation is that the US
administration had decided, a week before Sep. 11, to proceed with a
comprehensive counter-terrorism plan prepared under the previous (Clinton)
administration. This plan would have included tighter coordination between
federal agencies in tracing financial links and terrorist movements. Did this
imminent threat trigger several plans from the portfolio on a “use it or lose
it” basis? See the incompetent Shoe Bomber, Dirty Bomber, Bridge Bombers,
Industrial Mixers, etc. discussed above. This of course would imply that Al
Qaeda was warned of the impending action by leaks from the US – which brings
us to General Mehmood Ahmed’s visit to the US in the week before 9/11.
cannot know the intent of Gen. Ahmed’s visit – and of USA Lt. Gen. T.
Franks’ trip to Pakistan from which he is reported to have turned back on
9/11. In retrospect, it is likely that the discussions included the US plan to
implement the new counter-terrorism plan – and demanding Pakistani
cooperation. We can only speculate on the transmission of those discussions to
the terrorist enterprise. We can however observe General Ahmed’s achievements.
On Sep. 11, he managed to deflect the rising American anger off Pakistan and on
to Afghanistan. At the same time, he managed to sell the US Administration on
Pakistan’s indispensable role as the “Frontline Ally” for the US to have
any hope of preventing further attacks with weapons of mass destruction, keeping
the ISI very much in the middle [WN020227] – and get paid handsomely for their
efforts. The General and his boss Gen. Musharraf must congratulate themselves on
the success of this grand extortion scheme.
alternative explanation of the timing may be glimpsed from a snapshot of the
Pakistan junta’s predicament in the summer of 2001. The Taliban were under
tight UN sanctions, which were being violated only by Pakistan (Note: arms
convoys to the Taliban from Pakistan continued even during the US air strikes!)
Pakistan’s economy was in a downward spiral, with its foreign exchange
reserves down below $400M or one month’s reserve. Musharraf was scheduled to
visit the US in the 3rd week of September. As that date approached,
it was clear that the US administration, Congress, the World Bank, the
Commonwealth and the G-8 were in no mood to oblige him with debt-rescheduling,
F-16s, relaxation of sanctions, or increased economic aid. The lease extension
takes on new significance when viewed in the context of Musharraf’s declining
prospects for a productive visit to the US – which was critical to his
coup-free survival in Islamabad. With Saudi interest in bin Laden waning, and
the Chinese becoming wary with Uighur terrorists being trained in Pakistan, the
junta had to find a rich payer of protection money for “cooperation in
fighting terrorism”. Within 6 months after 9/11, Pakistan’s foreign exchange
reserves were reported up over $6 Billion, though their exports had plummeted
and imports risen as the economy stayed depressed and businesspeople and
tourists were scared away. This windfall was explained in the Pakistani press
and by former PM Benazir Bhutto as an operation where Pakistan sent “couriers
with suitcases” to the MidEast to buy dollars for 240 billion Pakistani rupees
– a patently absurd explanation.
summarizes the reports on Pakistani involvement in terror attacks on the USA.
The list is obviously long, and the Pakistani role is pervasive.
It is obvious that Pakistan has been deeply and inseparably involved in
the Taliban and the Al Qaeda – and as such bears responsibility for the 9/11
terrorist attacks. Indirect evidence comes from the plethora of reports. Nearly
every terror plot directed against the US and its interests has a strong link to
Pakistani training, equipment, and personnel. If 9/11 was not
Pakistan-organized, it must have been a rare exception.
1: Summary of Pakistan links to terrorist attacks on America
Jaish-e-Muhammed mullah Masood Azhar linked to attacks on Americans
1993 WTC bomber Ramzi Youssef traced to Pakistan; tied to 1995 plot
to bomb 12 US airliners. Pakistani arrested in Phillippines with
explosives in apartment, tied to airline bombing plot.
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Pakistani, on FBI Wanted alert, related to
9/11, Razmi Youssef and Tunisian synagogue bombing.
Tunisian suicide bomber Nawar traced to Pakistan training camp in
2000/2001. Receives $20K from Pakistani sources.
Would-be LAX bomber (Algerian native) reveals Pak coordination and
Abu Zubeidah, Al Qaeda coordinator of LAX bomb plot, lived in
1993 Bombay commercial district bombings (over 300 dead) – Dawood Ibrahim sheltered from Interpol in house near
Musharraf’s residence. TIME journalist harassed for reporting his
East Africa embassy bombing coordinator flew home to Pakistan,
1998; Kenyan suspect Sheikh
Ahmed Salim found in Karachi, July 2002.
Terror training camps found related to embassy bombings –Harkat-ul-Ansar
camps hit by US cruise missiles in 1998 were inside Pakistan.
Fatal hijacking – PanAm 73, Karachi, 1986. Hijacker(s) allowed to
escape; caught in 2002 and put on trial.
Fatal hijacking IC814, Dec.99– hijackers now in Pakistan, sought
as part of Daniel Pearl murder gang. Dress rehearsal for 9/11 – modus
operandi included slitting throats of passengers, and
commercial-pilot-trained hijackers expert in hand-to-hand combat.
Mohammed Atta’s classmate at Hamburg engg. School, 97-2000 was
PAF Sqn. Ldr.
PAF Sqn Ldr replaced by Atta’s cousin – 9/11 hijacker when PAF
officer’s brother died.
Omar Shaikh traced to ISI / Gen. Mehmood Ahmed links. Wired first
$100K to Atta in summer 2000 on Ahmed’s orders: cell phone call
Atta’s pilot-trainee Pak classmate denied entry to US; meets with
Atta and another Pak terrorist in Spain, July 10, 2001.
Zacarias Moussaoui trained in Pakistan.
Moussaoui came from Pakistan to London & US with $35K in 2001;
sought B747 training.
Bin Laden’s personal pilot reported to be former PAF officer.
Pak terror cells arrested in France, Miami.
Pakistani in a hurry to get 25 photos of WTC developed, 2 weeks
Pakistanis arrested on fraud; bogus company that bought industrial
Richard Reid (accused Shoe Bomber) trained and received final
instructions from Pakistan; related Pak cell arrested in France.
Jose Padilla (accused Dirty Bomber) trained and came to US from
Pakistan; Pak associates arrested in US.
John Walker Lindh (American Taliban) trained in Pakistan-Occupied
Singapore US embassy bomb plot: Kuwaiti-Canadian suspect
indoctrinated in Pakistan.
Previous bombing plots had Pak coordinators; Afghan camps had Pak
Pakistani Government Links to Terrorist Organizations
Dominant Pakistani role in Taliban Afghanistan
Pak sponsorship of Osama bin Laden’s return to Afghanistan, 1996
via drug lord
Pak govt sponsorship of terror
camps on both sides of the Pak-Afghan border.
Pak acquiesence in Osama’s Fatwas against the US – 1996 and
’98; Bin Laden proclamation in ’98
of “God’s Order to Kill Americans” in Peshawar, Pakistan.
Pak Lt. Gen. Aziz reported head of “Pakistan Army of Islam”
running terror camps.
Pak military instructors for terror trainees in A’stan -
FlightSim and training manuals found in A’Stan; IC814 hijack plot
material found in Kabul house; hijackers and Omar Shaikh found living in
Kolkatta US Consulate attack organizer Aftab Ansari put kidnap
ransom money in account which paid $100K to Atta.
ISI Chief Mehmood Ahmed reported to have ordered Omar Shaikh to
send money to Atta
Omar Shaikh reportedly receives balance of funds wired by Atta
& gang on 9/11 from Ansari Bank; flies back to Pakistan.
Pakistan Lt.Gen. Hamid Gul – fired ISI chief – virulently
anti-American terror camp organizer – in Afghanistan for weeks; returns
to party at ISI HQ, meeting Musharraf on 9/09 after Northern Alliance
leader Masood was assassinated.
9/12 emergency military evacuation from Afghanistan to Pakistan
completed within far too little time to have been thought up after 9/11
Timing – Atta extends lease for 30 days as Musharraf visit to US
looks headed for disaster.
Pak envoy M. Lodhi asserts that the ISI does not act without
General Musharraf takes full responsibility for ISI actions –
repeatedly and vehemently.
The direct pointers suggest that
there was no exception. The timeline of the 9/11 plot as seen from the media
reports is laid out in Table 2. This shows some interesting aspects. It appears
that the plot began to hatch at the same time as the Musharraf junta took over
Pakistan. The link to the funding sources from kidnapping and arms smuggling
appear to be strong. The most important pieces of evidence so far, directly
related to the 9/11 attacks are:
Pak Army / ISI Taliban nexus, making Pakistan directly responsible for
Aftab Ansari’s declaration of how kidnap ransom/ arms profits were
deposited in the account from where payments
were transferred to Mohammed Atta, along with clear links between Ansari and
Omar Saeed Shaikh.
The intercepted cell-phone call from General Mehmood Ahmed, director of
the ISI, to Omar Shaikh Saeed to start the money transfers to the hijackers.
The transfers of balances from the hijackers to the Al Ansari exchange in
Sharjah on 9/9-9/11.
Omar Shaikh Saeed’s movements traced from Pakistan to the Al Ansari
institution in Sharjah, withdrawal of funds received from the hijackers, and
return to Pakistan on 9/11.
The “substitution” of Marwan Al Shehhi (Atta’s cousin) for PAF Sqn
Ldr. Bin Mansoor when the latter had only gone home to attend his brother’s
military funeral. This makes sense for a military organization which replaces a
suicide mission trainee when his last sibling dies (as explained in the movie
“Saving Private Ryan”), and cannot tell him why technical school is suicidal
compared to flying PAF fighters on the Indian border. It also indicates that the
Saudi hijackers and the PAF officer received funds and orders from the same
source. The reported FBI “interest” in talking to the PAF suggests that the
FBI have not dropped that angle – including the real identity of “Atta”.
The curious behavior of the alleged terrorists at various “flight
schools” –contrasted with the “professional” skill exhibited on 9/11.
Pakistani start of Zacarias Moussauoi’s journey to the UK and then US
– with terrorist training and $35K
in cash – to join the other 9/11 hijackers, after Binalsbih (bin Al-Shaibah)
failed to get a visa to America.
ISI complicity in assassinating Ahmed Shah Masood. Party at ISI HQ same
night –9/09 with Musharraf and Hamid Gul attending. The coincidence (?) that
the first “All Systems Are Go” payment from the hijackers in Boston came in
to Shaikh Saeed in Dubai on Sep.9.
The impossibly short
lead-time for the airlift of military personnel / equipment from Afghanistan to
Pakistan on 9/12. This is a critical piece of evidence. It appears that the orders
to conduct the evacuation must have been triggered by the final return of money,
by the various hijackers, on Sep. 9 through 11th, Pakistan time.
US retaliation of some sort against Afghanistan was expected, making the
airlift essential. The airlift had to be timed well because of the danger in
leaving the northern frontlines exposed to the Northern Alliance Forces, despite
the murder of their leader Masood on September 9.
The flight of “Binalsbih” (Ramzi bin Al-Shaibah) and Said Bahaji to
Pakistan on Sep. 5.
Table 2: Timeline Related to
the 9/11 attacks
Atta and PAF Sqn Ldr
classmates at Hamburg.
PAF Sqn Ldr. returns to Pak;
replaced by Marwan Al Shehhi.
Gen. Mehmood Ahmed appointed ISI chief.
and 2 classmates train in Afghanistan.
hijacked to Kandahar using 9/11 modus operandi.
Shaikh & Masood Azhar freed.
Terrorist meeting at Kuala Lumpur,
Shaikh Saeed introduces Aftab
Ansari to L-e-T chief Hafeez Sayeed - kidnap scheme developed to fund
Ahmed phone call– orders Shaikh to wire $100K to Atta from Ansari
$110K appears in accounts of Atta
and Marwan Al Shehhi.
gang holds Indian jeweler to $850K ransom.
leaves Pakistan, goes to London and then US w/ $35,000 cash.
between Atta, Bin Al Shabai, Said Bahaji and others in Spain. Bin Al
Shabai unable to go to USA due to repeated visa refusal.
gang arrives in US.
gang holds Indian Shoe merchant to ransom.
passes through hijacker’s bank accounts in US.
extends house lease by 1 month.
Chief Gen. Mehmood Ahmed arrives in Washington for “discussions”.
Al Shabai and Said Bahaji flee to Pakistan.
Sep.9, Pakistan time). Atta wires money to Sharjah.
assassinated in Afghanistan; Musharraf at ISI HQ party; meets Hamid Gul on
return from Afghanistan. Waleed AlShehri wires $5215 from Boston to
Sharjah (Ansari bank). Atta also sends money.
orders airlift from Taliban?
wires $5400 to “Ahmad” (Omar Shaikh)
(Omar Shaikh) picks up transfers at Al Ansari exchange, Sharjah; flies
back to Karachi
Pak time) 911 attacks occur. Musharraf at party; informed.
Pak time):Islamabad & other Pak airports closed – heavy military
traffic – airlift from Afghanistan arrives.
question remains: “If the US knows all this, why are they not attacking
Pakistan or arresting the junta leaders?” Theories abound on this. The
most sanguine is that the US administration has some people near the top whose
deep knowledge of Pakistan and Afghanistan permits them to implement
sophisticated policies, where they essentially force or pay the leaders of the
terror gang to sell out all their accomplices, and thus systematically dismantle
the terror apparatus from the bottom up. It would be remarkable if such a policy
survived the emotions and pressures of 9/11/2001. Theories exploring other
scenarios may be found in [Choss0111A]. It is noted that General Mehmood Ahmed,
far from being a “rogue Islamist General” is a trusted associate of General
Musharraf, his loyalty established through his support in the coup of 1999, and
given the top spot in the ISI to replace Gen. Ziauddin, whom Musharraf had
arrested. As of early September 11, 2002, no top leaders of Al Qaeda are under
arrest – Abu Zubeidah the middle manager in terror recruiting, and Muttawakil,
the Taliban minister, are the topmost captives to-date. Table 3 lists various
names associated with the 9/11 plot as a primer for the reader.
Names related to the 9/11 terrorist plot
Abadin, Zein al. See “Abu Zubeidah”
Ahmed, Mehmood: Lt. General, Pakistan Army. Appointed chief
of ISI by General Musharraf after 1999 coup. Transferred in 2001 to the
Corps Commanders’ Council.
Ahmad, Mustafa Muhammad: Pseudonym of person who wired
$100K to and received balance from Mohammed Atta near 9/11. See
“Omar Shaikh Saeed”
Ansari, Aftab: Alleged kidnapper/ arms smuggler. Organized
terror attack at American Center, Kolkotta, Dec.2001. Pak passport;
extradited to India by Dubai. Alleged to have funded account where O.
Saeed wired $100K to the 9/11 hijackers. Linked to Al Ansari Exchange,
Sharjah, where Atta and Al Shehhi wired money on Sep.9&10, 2001.
Atef, Mohammed: Alleged military chief of Al Qaeda.
Believed killed in US air raid.
Atta, Mohammed: Alleged leader of 9/11 hijackers.
Bahaji, Said: Alleged associate
whom Atta met in Tarrogonna, Spain, July 10, 2001. Flew to Pakistan Sep.5,
2001 and believed hiding there. Wanted.
Ramzi. Alleged Yemeni classmate of M. Atta, denied entry into US.
Binalshibh, Ramzi. See “bin Al-Shaibah, Ramzi”.
Believed to be in Pakistan. Wanted.
Bin Laden, Osama: Saudi billionaire turned preacher;
organizer of Al Qaeda.
Bin Mansoor, Atif Ahmed: Sqn Ldr., Pakistan Air Force.
Reportedly classmate of Mohammed Atta at Hamburg Technische Hochschule,
1997-2000 before arrival of Marwan Al Shehhi
Gul, Hamid: Former chief of ISI. Fired in 1989 after US
concerns about terrorist links.
Hasnain, Mansur: An alleged hijacker of IC814. Sought in
Pakistan for murder of Daniel Pearl.
Husnain, Ghulam: Karachi TIME stringer who reported story
on Dawood Ibrahim living in Pakistan near Musharraf’s residence.
Harassed by ISI; escaped to the West.
Khan,Aziz: Lt. General, Pak. Army; Musharraf’s assistant
in Kargil debacle; caught on tape telling Musharraf about control of “
mujaheddin”; Said to be chief of “Pak Army of Islam”.
Masood, Ahmed Shah: Leader of Afghan Resistance to Soviet
invasion. After Soviets left, led Northern Alliance. Assasinated Sep. 9,
2001 by suicide bomber.
Mohammed, Khaled al-Sheikh.Pakistan-born, Kuwaiti resident.
Wanted related to 9-11 attacks. Believed to be uncle of Ramzi Youssef.
Moussaoui, Zacarias: Tried by US as “20th
hijacker” in 9/11 plot. Algerian-French.
Omar (Mullah): Taliban leader. Absconding after October 7, 2001.
Saeed, Omar Shaikh: Member, Harkat-ul-Mujaheddin; also
associated with Jaish-e-Mohammed and ISI Chief General Mehmood Ahmed.
British citizen, arrested for kidnap & murder in India, 1994, freed as
ransom for IC814, Jan. 2000, Alleged conveyor for funds to and from 9/11
hijackers. Sentenced to death for murder of Daniel Pearl.
Saleem, Sheikh Ahmed: “bin Laden’s financial
advisor”. Sudan national; arrested July 12, 2002 in Karachi, suspected
in attack on US Consulate.
Sayeed, “Professor” Haffez: Pakistani leader of “Lashkar-e-Toiba”,
renamed “Lashkar-e-Jhangvi” after US named L-e-T as a foreign
terrorist organization. Allegedly conspired with Ansari to use kidnappings
to fund terrorism.
Siddiqui, Imtiaz: See “Mansur Hasnain”
Youssef, Ramzi: In US jail, convicted of roles in 1993 WTC
bombing, and planning 1995 plot to blow up US airliners over the Pacific.
Zubeidah, Abu, a.k.a. Zein al Abadin: Pakistan based,
accused Al Qaeda coordinator of 1999 LAX bomb plot & East African
embassy bombings. Arrested by US in Faisalabad.
In this paper, we have
used the statement of “evidence” presented by the Western Allies as
rationale for their attacks on Afghanistan.
From the logic and evidence presented by Prime Minister Blair,
supplemented with other information which became available before and after
September 2001, we can see that bin Laden and Al Qaeda are specific players
inside a larger organization – and that organization is the same as that which
runs the Pakistan government. The accumulated mass of reports from all over the
world present a picture of a global menace from Pakistan–trained, equipped and
ordered terrorists. This menace is far from being over. Added to the weight of
these indirect pointers, specific evidence on money transfers and the timing of
the emergency evacuation from Afghanistan, exposes several links of a chain
tying the top levels of the Pakistan government to the horrific attacks of
September 11, 2001.
was developed from a discussion conducted at the Bharat-Rakshak Forum, http://www.Bharat-Rakshak.com.
The attention and comments of numerous participants are gratefully acknowledged.
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