Awards for the year 1991


A total of 63 Awards are listed.
Param Vishist Seva Medal : 4 | Ati Vishist Seva Medal : 10 | Shaurya Chakra : 1 | Yudh Seva Medal : 3 | Vayu Sena Medal : 18 | Vishist Seva Medal : 24 | Mention in Despatches : 3 |
Param Vishist Seva Medal
Air Marshal Parduman Kumar Jain 4366 ADMUnit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Marshal Praduman Kumar Jain was commissioned in the Indian Air Force, in 1952. During his long and meritorious career of 38 years, he has held a variety of prestigious appointments with great distinction.

At the initial stages of his career as a Controller of the Air Traffic Control, he displayed high proficiency, innovation and resourcefulness in his profession.

The professional standards set by him are even now used as yardsticks. He was instrumental in conceiving and establishing the only Air Traffic School in the Indian Air Force.

The Air Officer has served as the Chief Administrative Officer at two major bases. With his professional approach and direction, he brought about vast improvements in the administrative infrastructure and services which substantially enhanced the functional and operational efficiency of these bases.

As Air Officer incharge Administration he shouldered the responsibility of guiding the entire spectrum of administrative activities in the IAF. While discharging this onerous duty with his usual zeal and professionalism he has shown the initiative approach and courage to rise above traditional methods and normally accepted considerations after failure of the MES to provide qualitative runway repairs which critically affect Air Force Operations.

As President of the Services Sports Control Board, he demonstrated keen interest in promoting adventure and sports activities which help immensely in developing spiritde-corps and dynamic character among the personnel of the Armed Forces.

Air Marshal Praduman Kumar Jain, VSM has, thus, rendered distinguished service of most exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Param Vishist Seva Medal
Air Marshal Rajendra Kumar Dhawan 4736 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Marshal Rajendra Kumar Dhawan was commissioned in the Indian Air Force on the 17th July, 1954. A graduate of the National Defence College and Long Defence Management Course, a fighter Pilot of repute, he has held a wide variety of important command and staff appointments with distinction.

He was entrusted with the command of a squadron to be re-equipped with a different variant of supersonic fighter aircraft in 1973, where he faced multiple problems of the new induction. He, however, overcame the problems with initiative, determination and innovative skill. Through untiring efforts, he created a nucleus from which the subsequent squadrons of similar types could be formed successfully.

As Deputy Commandant of the Air Force Academy, he was instrumental in improving the training standards in respect of officer trainees of all branches. Later, he was appointed as the Commandant of the College of Air Warfare where he guided a number of studies to update air warfare doctrines and strategies.

Promoted to the rank of Air Marshal in 1988, the Air Officer was appointed as the Deputy Chief of the Air Staff at the Air HQrs. He guided and supervised an extensive in-house re-appreciation of the long-term re-equipment plan and the preparation of the draft outline of the VIII Plan of the Indian Air Force. His other achievement has been re-tailoring of the Air Force plans and schemes in conformity with expected allocation, without curtailing the process of building up the operational potential. In April 1990, he was posted as the Senior Air Staff Officer of an important Operational Command. In this appointment, his operational and staff experience continued to be of immense value.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Param Vishist Seva Medal
Air Marshal Shashi Kumar Samuel Ramdas 4930 AEMUnit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Marshal Shashi Kumar Samuel Ramdas was commissioned on the 4th April, 1955. A graduate of the National Defence College, he has held a number of important field and staff appointments.

From 1976 to 1978, he served as the Chief Engineering Officer of a premier fighter base in the South Western Sector. Here, by meticulous planning and optimum exploitation of the limited resources, he ensured a very high state of serviceability of all aircraft and related systems. He was specially selected for training of Jaguar aircraft in the United Kingdom in 1979 and was closely associated with the successful induction of this high technology aircraft into the Indian Air Force.

In February 1986, he was appointed as the Senior Maintenance Staff Officer of an Operational Command. In this assignment, he brought about all round improvement in maintenance activities. He computerised the data and functioning of the Maintenance Control Centre at Command HQrs for increasing the quality and speed of decision making. He ensured strengthening of the infrastructure and qualitative improvements in the standard of maintenance and serviceability which enhanced the operational preparedness of the Command.

On promotion to the rank of Air Marshal, he was appointed as the Senior Maintenance Staff Officer at HQrs Maintenance Command. There, with his vast experience and expertise, he continued to make significant contribution for enhancing the production of various Base Repair Depots and, thus improved the operational preparedness of the Indian Air Force.

The Air Officer was nominated to head a high-powered committee to examine all aspects relating to the operation and maintenance of Airbus-320 aircraft by the Indian Airlines. The report of the Committee bears ample testimony to the Air Officer's professionalism and analytical ability in evaluating complex technical and man-machine interface problems in high-technology aircraft. The Government has accepted the Committee's report and implementation of its recommendations would assist the Indian Airlines in ensuring safe and smooth induction of this most modern aircraft.

The Air Officer has since retired and taken over the prestigious appointment of the Chairman, Indian Air Lines.

Air Marshal Shashi Kumar Samuel Ramdas, AVSM, VM, VSM has, thus, rendered distinguished service of the most exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Param Vishist Seva Medal
Air Marshal Trilochan Singh 5043 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Vice Marshal Trilochan Singh (5043) Flying (Pilot) was commissioned in the Fighter Stream of the IAF on 14 June 1956. During his long service career he has held a number of key command and staff appointments including Command of a fighter squadron, an operational Base, Director Electronic Warfare at Air HQ and Senior Air Staff Officer at Western Air Command.

A veteran fighter pilot, he was awarded the Vir Chakra for conspicuous gallantry during the Indo-Pak Conflict in 1965. A dedicated Pilot Attack Instructor, he brought about remarkable improvements in the operational effectiveness of a frontline fighter squadron during his command. As a befitting squeal to his leadership of the Squadron, he was later appointed the Station Commander of a large Fighter Base in the Eastern Sector. His dynamic approach to numerous problems at this remotely located base transformed it into an exemplary station, for which he was awarded the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal in 1980.

As Joint Director Air Defence, he was the key figure in the induction of MiG-23 MF air defence aircraft in the IAF. He also served as a crucial member of the negotiating team for the Mirage-2000 aircraft and was instrumental in laying down the utilization philosophy and the weapon mix for this weapon system. Appointed Air Attaché in our Embassy in France in 1982, he coordinated the actual hand-over of Mirage-2000 aircraft to the IAF as well as the training of Indian pilots and technicians, apart from successfully negotiating and finalizing certain subcontracts of the Project.

A graduate of National Defence College, his contribution as DEW in exploitation of the IAF's meager inventory was noteworthy. In 1988, he was appointed the Senior Air Staff Officer (SASO) at Western Air Command. As SASO of this Command, he was deeply involved in the planning and finalization of operational plans. He conceived relocation of the air defence elements of the WAC; making the system far more effective.

A graduate of Senior Defence Management Course, the Air Officer brings to bear his varied operational and administrative experience in his present appointment of Assistant Chief of Air Staff (Operations) and continues to make significant contributions to our operational preparedness through innovative utilization of resources.

Air Vice Marshal Trilochan Singh AVSM, VrC, VM has thus rendered distinguished service of most exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
AVM Amal Kumar Mukhopadhyaya 5237 Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Marshal Amal Kumar Mukhopadhyaya was commissioned in the IAF on 1st September, 1956. Throughout his long career he has held with distinction a variety of appointments at Squadrons, Wings, Base Repair Depots, Command and Air Headquarters. A special mention must be made of his work as Member­Secretary of the Specialist Committee on Chetak/Cheetah helicopters.

During his tenure as Chief Engineering Officer, HQ SWAC, a Sprinkler System for stabilizing sand was successfully developed. The same has since been standardized and is being manufactured.

While undergoing the National Defence College course in 1987, the Air Officer's two articles on Defence/Economic matters got published in 'Yojna' the Planning Commission journal. As Senior Maintenance Staff Officer, CAC, he worked most effectively to ensure high serviceability of the combat, transport and helicopter fleets and ADGES systems. During his tenure as the ACAS (Eng 'A'), serviceability and availability of the Soviet origin combat, transport and helicopter fleets increased significantly. The Air Officer has been appointed as Air Officer Incharge Maintenance, Air Headquarters.

Air Marshal Amal Kumar Mukhopadhyaya has thus rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
AVM Subramaniam Rathnam 5921 EDNUnit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Vice Marshal Subramaniam Ratnam was commissioned in the IAF on the 1st June, 1960 in the Education Branch. He is a graduate of the College of Defence Management and was commended by the Chief of the Air Staff in 1974 for his significant contribution in streamlining the airmen promotion procedure and record keeping.

During his tenure as the Directing Staff (Junior Commander Course) at Air Force Admin College, he recast the syllabus and training notes in Management and gave a new orientation and thrust to the studies in Management. As Junior Directing Staff at the National Defence College during the period May 1981 to December 1984, he worked tirelessly and reorganised, refurnished and upgraded the Library which is a major hub of activities at the College.

On promotion to the rank of Group Captain, he was posted to South Western Air Command as the Command Education Officer in December 1984. During his two years of stay there, he identified the weaknesses in the schooling system and initiated works programme for construction of school buildings in several stations. He was then promoted to the rank of Air Commodore and posted as the Joint Director (Education) at Air HQ in November 1986. As the ex-officio Chairman of the Managing Committee of the three Air Force Public Schools at Delhi, he initiated a number of works programmes which brought about a substantial addition to the infrastructure, thus, creating additional facilities, for both the curricular and the extra curricular activities. He chaired a committee which went into the entire establishment and finance structure of the schools and formulated standard norms. He instituted procedures designed to bring about a coordinated functioning of the three schools. Through effective liaison with the Ministry of Human Resource Development and agencies like CBSE and KVS, he has been able to help both the unit schools and KVS at Air Force Stations tide over many problems connected with affiliations, sanction for additional classes and posting of teachers.

As the Director of Education since January 1990, he has given a new push to the implementation of the official language policy through intimate interaction with the concerned agencies of the Govt. He has taken on hand the implementation of a new scheme of Airmen Trade Tests and computerisation of all operations and records at the Air Headquarters Library.

As the Project Coordinator of the Air Force Golden Jubilee Auditorium since August 1989, he spared no efforts in getting the project completed inspite of manifold difficulties.

Air Vice Marshal Subramaniam Ratnam has, thus, rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
AVM Vishnu Murti Raina 5382 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Vice Marshal Vishnu Murti Raina was commissioned in fighter stream of IAF on 29 May 57. Since then he has held some most important and prestigious operational and administrative appointments in the IAF with distinction.

He is currently holding the appointments of Air 1 at HQ Western Air Command. On taking over his present assignment in Jan 88, he was immediately involved in a major intercommand exercise. The successful culminating of the exercise was largely due to his initiative, resourcefulness and hard work put in by Air Vice Marshal Raina. Variety of aircraft, terrain, operating conditions and the weapon systems in WAC demand high level of professional knowledge, managerial skill, application and decision making ability. Air Cmde VM Raina displayed all these qualities in ample measures. In Oct 88, Western Air Command was tasked to conduct an Air Power Display at Tilpat Range in Feb/Mar 89. The entire task of planning and execution of this prestigious event was handled by Air Vice Marshal Raina. Air Vice Marshal Raina generated considerable enthusiasm amongst the aircrew and the staff to give off their best. His thoughtful handling of those under him resulted in building up of a well integrated team of officers in HQ Western Air Command working towards successful completion of this precisely controlled and well executed demonstration.

Air Vice Marshal Vishnu Murti Raina has, thus, rendered distinguished service of exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
Air Cmde Sharadkumar Ramakrishna Deshpande 5694 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Commodore Sharadkumar Ramakrishna Deshpande was commissioned in the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force on the 29th May, 1959. Since then, he has held many important and prestigious operational and administrative appointments and has throughout acquitted himself in an exemplary manner.

On the 4th November, 1988, he took over Command of an Air Force Station which is vital to the defence of the nation's capital. Soon thereafter, he was involved in the intense preparations for Air Power Demonstration which was held on the 18th March, 1989 at Tilpat firing range. His station played a vital role in the conduct of this widely acclaimed event. Air Cmde Deshpande displayed very high quality of management skill, hard work and indefatigable spirit in meeting this additional task besides his normal operational and administrative responsibilities.

During 1989-90, a fighter squadron was reequipped with MiG-27 aircraft and was located at his Station. In spite of numerous teething problems, the squadron has achieved fully operational status under his watchful eye, leadership and guidance within a short period.

Air Commodore Sharadkumar Ramakrishna Deshpande, VM has, thus, rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
Air Cmde Trever Raymond Joseph Osman 6005 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Commodore Trevor Raymond Joseph Osman has been commanding a key fighter base since the 12th January, 1989. Under his command, the base has maintained a very high status in the areas of operations, maintenance and administration. This has been achieved due to the officer's deep personal involvement and qualities of leadership. He has been able to motivate his men to produce outstanding results which are reflected in the performance of the Wing.

In the field of operations, his unrelenting efforts, leadership from the front, comprehensive professional knowledge and ability to build an effective team have enabled him AVSM 1991 to keep the performance of the base at a very high level. His stress on increased mutual interaction between operational squadrons and a tactics development agency has resulted in smooth absorption of new concepts based on better understanding of the changing operational scenario.

In the field of maintenance, Air Cmde Osman has insisted on the highest standards of technical practices and encouraged independent thinking oriented towards innovation. Under his guidance and encouragement, the maintenance personnel have designed and put up several significant modifications to enhance the operational capability of aircraft and weapon systems, and that too at a negligible cost.

In the field of administration, as a result of careful planning and optimal use of existing resources, he was able to achieve marked efficiency in the execution of works services. On the welfare front, he introduced a number of activities which positively contributed to the maintenance of morale of all personnel and their families at a very high level.

Air Commodore Trevor Raymond Joseph Osman has, thus, rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
Air Cmde Ranjit Kumar Malhotra 6513 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Commodore Ranjeet Kumar Malhotra was commissioned in the Air Force in May 1962. Apart from having held 'A' category and Master Green Instrument Rating on a variety of aircraft, he is among the extremely few Air Force Officers who have achieved 'A­1' QFI category. He is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College.

He is commanding an Air Force Station since February, 1988. He has brought about a high degree of cohesion, purposefulness and quest for excellence amongst the personnel of his station. He tackles all assigned tasks with a positive outlook, well-defined objectives, meticulous planning and flawless execution. As a result of his deep personal involvement and leadership, there has been a significant improvement in the quality of flying training while phenomenal gains have been made in maintenance, administration and welfare activities. His station was adjudged best in the Command in aircraft maintenance and in the cleanliness/beautification of domestic campus. In addition, his station performed most creditably in Mechanical Transport (MT) maintenance, flight safety, upkeep of libraries and management of messes. Additionally, his station has been awarded Air Headquarters Flight Safety Trophy for single engine trainer group during 1989-90.

Air Commodore Ranjeet Kumar Malhotra has, thus, rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
Air Cmde Shailendra Singh Kaushik 6766 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Commodore Shallindra Singh Kaushik was commissioned in November, 1962 in the Flying (Pilot) Branch in fighter stream. In 1975, he joined the transport stream and up till now has to his credit nearly 1500 hours of air transport missions involving supply drop in the Eastern Sector. While he was the Flight Commander in a Transport Squadron, the Squadron was the recipient of the Flight Safety Trophy for two consecutive years. From 1979 to 1982, he was in command of a SAM III Squadron. The Squadron was non operational when he assumed command and was nursed to operational status by him.

During his tenure as Joint Director of Guided Weapons in the Directorate of Air Staff Inspection, the officer single-handedly introduced and formalized On-the-Job Training (OJT) and Continuity Training syllabi for the use by the crew of Pechora Squadron. He suggested the revamping of flying branch officers in Guided Weapon force to have practical distribution of selected and non­select officers in the stream. His paper titled “Protection for Pechora Combat Flights" dealt with blast protection for Pechora Squadrons which has been accepted as a norm. To include the competitive spirit amongst Pechora Combat Crew, he mooted the idea of “Missile Proficiency badge" for GW operational crew. This suggestion has been accepted. On promotion, the officer was posted as Air Officer Commanding of an Air Force Station. In his short stay of 14 months, he ensured that the performance of non­operational SAM III Squadron was brought up to the level of the operational standards demanded from it. With a single­minded dedication and devotion to duty, the officer has made value contributions in improving and streamlining the operational training of Pechora Squadrons. His indepth knowledge of the systems involved coupled with his capacity to mould the varied experience into practical and viable alternative has been instrumental in laying the foundations of organized tainting in enhancement of operational potential of the SAGW stream.

Air Commodore Shallindra Singh Kaushik has, thus, rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
Air Cmde Teshter Jall Master 7224 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Air Commodore Teshter Jall Master was commissioned in the Indian Air Force in March 1963. He has held important field and staff appointments apart from taking active part in the 1965 and 1971 operations. In August 1986, he was appointed as the Command Air Defence Officer, HQ WAC. During this tenure, he successfully implemented the Limited Area Defence concept from within the existing resources of WAC. This has now been generally adopted in the IAF and has greatly enhanced our air defence potential. During the operational alert in early 1987, the officer was singularly involved in the deployment and the activation of air defence Elements and handling of all operational contingencies arising thereof with speed and efficiency.

In his present appointment as the Director of Electronic Warfare at the Air HQ, the officer has once again displayed his zeal and ingenuity in giving impetus to all EW activities in the Air Force. He has been responsible for planning and optimising EW inductions, training and electronic intelligence gathering activities. By ensuring that an indigenous ECM equipment was proven and declared operational in a short time, he saw to it that our operational capabilities as well as our indigenous R&D programme received a major boost. A noteworthy achievement of the officer has been to establish an Electronic Warfare Computer Centre which processes the entire Elint data collected by the AF and those received from other agencies. It was under his guidance that tasking and data flow from the ARC were streamlined. Finally, it is due to the officer's initiative that efforts to enhance our EW training as well as to bring about greater awareness of EW in the IAF are now bearing fruit.

Air Commodore Teshter Jail Master has, thus, rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Jaswant Kumar Singh 6186 LGSUnit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Group Captain Jaswant Singh Kumar has been posted as the Director of Mechanical Transport since the 10th December, 1986. He has brought about a conceptual change in MT Management of the Indian Air Force. He initiated phasing out of over­powered vehicles with high fuel consumption which, apart from being more expensive, were found unreliable by the field formations. Induction of fuel efficient vehicles like Maruti Gypsy, Allwyn Nissan and Swaraj Mazda, not only boosted the ground mobility of operational units but also resulted in appreciable fuel economy and improved serviceability­cum­reliability. The petrol consumption at most of the major Stations dropped by 10-15% after phased induction of these vehicles. Savings to the tune of Rs. 3 to 5 crore per year would accrue with the completion of induction programme of fuel efficient vehicles to replace over-powered vehicle fleet. The revised Maintenance System conceived by him envisaged utilisation of authorised civil servicing and maintenance facilities to the optimum so that vehicles were properly serviced/repaired and also spares inventory kept to optimum level. This has directly contributed to the operational preparedness of units like MOFs, Flying Stations and Mobile Radar Units. The officer reorganised the MT vehicles induction and spares distribution system to provide a high degree of assurance in spares to all the units.

He closely monitored and analysed the MT accident rate and issued various instructions to the units on vital importance of defensive driving. During the last three years, constant downward trend has been achieved in respect of MT accident rate.

Group Captain Jaswant Singh Kumar, VSM has, thus, rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Ati Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Ajit Bhavnani 10440 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Group Captain Ajit Bhavnani has been in command of Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment since the 1st February, 1989. He was instrumental in bringing about major changes in the training curriculum of TACDE. The FCL course which had remained unchanged since its inception in 1973, was divided into specific streams for Fighter Combat Loaders and Fighter Strike Loaders. With the fast changing air environment and with the induction of sophisticated role dedicated combat aircraft, the IAF needed to channelise its combat training towards specialist role orientation. Additionally, for the very first time in the IAF, courses for fighter controllers were introduced. This significant increase in the content and versatility of training task at TACDE necessitated major changes in the training programme and syllabi. With minimal additional resources, these changes were successfully brought about in a highly professional and disciplined manner, under the able guidance and direction of Group Captain Ajit Bhavnani.

The officer has further initiated a series of innovative and urgent steps to redefine functioning of TACDE at appropriate levels. As a result of these steps, TACDE has been involved at various levels of lAF's operational functioning. At the field level, his team has interacted regularly with combat pilots and controllers, visiting all fighter bases and disseminating latest tactics, techniques and procedures which have recently been developed by TACDE. Greater emphasis on development tasks has been a hallmark of TACDE's recent achievements. At the planning level, they have been involved in providing guidelines for the operational plans at the Command Headquarters and at important forums.

Group Captain Ajit Bhavnani, VM has, thus, rendered distinguished service of an exceptional order.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Shaurya Chakra
Cpl Santosh Kumar Bajpai 628814 ORUnit : -N.A.- Award Date 30 Jan 90 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

On 30th January, 1990 Corporal Santosh Kumar Bajpai belonging to a Signal Unit, Air Force at Tejpur, was detailed on temporary duty to another AF station by road. After completion of the task at that place the airman boarded a civil bus at 1330 hours for returning to Rangapara. At about the same time on that day a gang of armed militants looted approximately Rs.1 crore from SBI Rangapara. These armed militants were stranded with their booty at Borjully PWD Road about 3 km from Rangapara as their gateway vehicle had broken down. At this point of time the civil bus carrying Cpl Bajpai SK reached that spot. The standard armed extremists numbering approximately seven stopped the bus at gunpoint and ordered the bus driver to reverse and asked the passengers to get down. Realising that they wanted to use the bus for their escape, Corporal Bajpai SK courageously came forward and refused to get down from the bus while the other passengers disembarked. Cpl Bajpai, on the other hand, ordered the bus driver to drive on the bus to Rangapara. While Cpl Bajpai defied the armed extremists, other passengers watched in mute silence and continued to obey the command of the extremists. Angered at the defiance of Cpl Bajpai, one of the extremists fired at him from point blank range and killed him. Another extremists opened fire indiscriminately inside the bus. By this time one motor cycle and a moped happened to be passing through the site of the incident. In their panic the extremists stopped and took over these two vehicles at gun point and five of the extremists escaped on these two vehicles and other two ran away through the tea garden. The police recovered Rs. 73 lacs from the Ambassador Car broken down at the site of the incident. The civil bus was driven to the Rangapara Railway Hospital with the injured passengers and the dead body of the Cpl Bajpai SK. Had Corporal Bajpai SK not put valiant resistance, the extremists would have easily succeeded in getting away with the booty.

Corporal Santosh Kumar Bajpai, thus, displayed conspicuous bravery and made the supreme sacrifice of his life in public interest.

Reference: Gazette of India , 27th April 1991 - No.?? - Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Yudh Seva Medal
Wg Cdr Mahendra Goli 12238 F(P)Unit : No.114 Helicopter Unit  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr Mahendra Goli is posted as Commanding Officer of one of the Air Force Helicopter Units since 17 Jul 89.

The Unit's operational task is primarily in the Siachen Glacier where helipads are in the region of 19000 ft to 23000 ft density altitude. The helipads are exposed to frequent enemy shelling and the Cheetah helicopter flies in most inhospitable terrain on extremes of flight envelop.

Wg Cdr Goli immediately after taking over the unit, involved himself in the operational training of U/T pilots who were declared fully operational in the shortest possible time to undertake Air Maintenance task at Amar, Sonam and Zulu, the most difficult helipads in the Glacier. The officer has 5830 hrs of accident/incident-free flying record to his credit.

On 03 July 90, one Cheetah helicopter force-landed at Amar helipad at an altitude of 19,000' above MSL. The helicopter required an engine change without which it was not possible to retrieve the helicopter. It also necessitated taking an engine (wt 200 kg) to Amar whereas the normal load as per SOP vary from 25 Kgs to 75 Kgs during the season. Wg Cdr Goli master minded the whole exercise of transporting the serviceable engine, change and fly the helicopter out of Amar at the earliest. Probably this was the first time after an engine change a helicopter has been flown out from 19,000' (23,000' density altitude).

For his high professional standards, deft planning, exceptional imagination, devotion to duty and exemplary bravery, the President is pleased to award Yuddh Seva Medal to Wg Cdr Mahendra Goli.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Yudh Seva Medal
Sqn Ldr Neti Shivaram Krishna 16818 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Flt Lt Neti Shiv Ram Krishna has been on the posted strength of one of the Helicopter Units since 12 Jul 89.

Flt Lt Krishna was the detachment Commander of the Mi-8 detachment at Tri-ncomallee. On the morning of 14 Sep 89, he was given the task of induction of troops immediately into the jungles near Kattukulam in order to take on the LTTE militants hiding in these jungles in heavy concentrations. There was only a very small clearing where landing could be undertaken with great difficulty. Anticipating that troops may be required to be landed in large numbers, Flt Lt Krishna decided in consultation with the army officer on board, to land at another lake bed (Kattukulam), about 2 Kms north-west of the designated landing zone.

On the night of 14 Sep 89, Flt Lt Krishna who in anticipation, had kept his helicopter in readiness for casualty evacuation was given the task to evacuate some casualties who were seriously wounded from Kattukulum area. The mission entailed flying on a dark night with marginal weather. He executed the landing with tremendous skill, professional ability and courage, putting down the helicopter in a clearing barely sufficient for the helicopter and covered by ditches.

For his exemplary courage, dedication to duty, judgment, professional excellence and sense of involvement, the President is pleased to award Yuddh Seva Medal to Flt Lt Neti Shiv Ram Krishna.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Yudh Seva Medal
Flt Lt Chandra Singh 17325 F(P)Unit : No.114 Helicopter Unit  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Flt Lt Chandra Singh has been on posted strength of one of the Helicopter Units in Air Force since 20 Jun 88.

In his short service career of 6½ years, this young and keen flier has carried out 2550 hours of accident/incident free helicopter flying.

During his tenure in the unit, Flt Lt Chandra Singh has flown over 2400 sorties exclusively in the Siachen Glacier, to the highest helipads in the world like Amar, Sonam and Zulu, where the density altitude ranges from 18000 ft to 23000 ft. Operations to these helipads which are in very close proximity to enemy locations is invariably similar to war like conditions due to frequent enemy shelling/fire.

He had undertaken around 2400 hazardous missions to deliver vital supplies like ammunitions, rations, medicines and evacuating serious casualties to/from our highest helipads under heavy enemy shelling and at times in adverse weather conditions.

In recognition of his exemplary courage and exceptional devotion to duty, the President is pleased to award Yuddh Seva Medal to Flt Lt Chandra Singh.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vayu Sena Medal
Gp Capt Krishnarao Narayanrao Paradkar 7639 AE(M)Unit : 1 Wireless Experimental C  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt KN Paradkar was commissioned in erstwhile Signals Branch of the IAF, in Jul 63. He served for five years, with distinction, in Guided Weapon Squadron and Wing, and took active part in Squadron mobilities during 1971 Operations. Immediately thereafter, in 1972, he was selected for post graduation in "Aviation Electronics" at Cranfield Institute of Technology, England, where, he, once again, secured the highest marks.

Since his return from UK in 1974, Gp Capt Paradkar has been engaged in all aspects of Electronic Warfare (EW) activity. The officer took over as the Commandant, 1 Wireless Experimental Centre, an inter-service almamater for SIGINT activities, in Jan 89.

However, it is in the field of Signals Intelligence communications that Gp Capt Paradkar has excelled. He has revolutionized the concept of SI dedicated communication. The new systems have opened up possibilities of unattended operation which would ultimately result in saving in manpower as well.

In recognition of his sustained, selfless hard work with utmost devotion and dedication of exceptional order, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Gp Capt KN Paradkar.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal
Gp Capt Chandra Kant Krishnatri 7697 F(P)Unit : No.6 Squadron  Award Date 30 Oct 87 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Chandra Kant Krishnatri took over the command of a Squadron with effect from 09 Sep 88. He had the challenging task of managing two flights operating different types of aircraft, viz. Canberra and Jaguar, in different roles. He also faced the arduous task of making the Jaguar flight operational on maritime offensive role which was a new assignment to the aircraft.

During the period of his Command, the Squadron made tremendous strides in its operational capabilities. Excellent rapport and professional understanding were reached between the operational elements of Air Force and Navy over effective management of offensive maritime operations. Following these, Standard Operating Procedures were evolved on maritime tactics for both the services.

Under Gp Capt Krishnatri's able Command the flight won the best over all trophy in 1989 Gunnery meet and team events in level bombing, front guns and cine.

He flew both Jaguar and Canberra aircraft operationally. Under his leadership Canberra aircraft undertook Target Towing commitments for all three services. The Squadron as a whole achieved 100% instrument flying rating and aircrew categorization.

For display of leadership and professional skill of exceptional order and for his contribution towards the operational efficiency of a Squadron, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Gp Capt Chandra Kant Krishnatri.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Devotion to Duty)
Gp Capt Shyamlala Barn Majumdar 8917 F(P)Unit : ADGES Maintenance and Standards Establishment  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Shyamlal Barn Majumdar took over as Commanding Officer of ADGES Maintenance and Standards Establishment (AMSE) with effect from 10 Apr 90.

Since taking over of Command of AMSE, Gp Capt Majumdar has been a driving force to organize available resources to assure an efficient and prompt maintenance support to the far flung ADGES radar and communication units. The Cat 'D' arisings reached a peak of 5737 repairable modules and 882 testers, instruments and digital modules in Sep 89. With his untiring effort, zeal and organsisng ability of a very high order, Gp Capt Majumdar inspired his personnel to gear up the resources to reach a peak production rate from 600 repairable to 1200 per month. This enabled AMSE to bring down the backlog to a meager figure of 400 modules of Radar and around 100 testers.

During 1989, the performance of PSM-33 Mk 1 radar at most of field units, suffered a set back. His quick appreciation revealed that repair of a number of sophisticated and complex microprocessors based electronic modules of radar was possible at AMSE but not attempted. Gp Capt Majumdar took it as a challenge and stretched the capabilities of AMSE to successfully add nearly 100 such modules to the list being handled at AMSE repair laboratories. All these steps brought about a major break-through and improved the operational availability of PSM-33 Mk 1 radar to a very high percentage.

For his high degree of professional competence, initiative, devotion to duty and remarkable leadership, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Gp Capt SB Majumdar.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Devotion to Duty)
Gp Capt Shashi Mohan Puri 10483 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Shashi Mohan Puri was commissioned in the flying branch in Oct 66 and has been in Command of a Squadron since 28 Aug 88. An officer with exceptional competence and vast flying experience, he has 6450 hours of accident-free flying to his credit.

Ever since the assumption of Command, Gp Capt Puri has through outstanding supervising capabilities and dynamic leadership raised the operational status of the Squadron to very high levels besides achieving 100% categorization of all categories of aircrew.

Gp Capt Puri has had the singular distinction to be selected by the Air Headquarters as the Type Force Commander for every major exercise held by the Air Force. He was the leader of AN-32s which participated in Op Cactus.

After his Squadron has been designated in the new role, Gp Capt Puri has totally devoted himself to the formulation of standardization of training syllabus besides evolving SOP and tactics. He has been successful in converting crew in the new role in a very short time frame. The Squadron has been declared the 'Best Transport Squadron' in 1990-1991.

For his excellence in professionalism, outstanding leadership and dedication to duty, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Gp Capt SM Puri.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal
Gp Capt Kalathil Payan Sreekanth 10508 F(P)Unit : MiG Operational Flying Training Unit  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Kalathi Payyan Sreekanth took over the Command of the Prestigious MiG Operational Flying Training Unit (MOFTU) in Nov 88, after having successfully commanded a frontline MiG-21 Sqn.

Under his dynamic leadership, the Unit has logged over 13000 sorties of which Gp Capt Sreekanth has personally flown nearly 700 accident-free sorties. Because of his meticulous planning and continuous prolonged involvement with the task in hand, the Unit has been able to pass out MOFTU courses in time, thereby contributing immensely to the overall Op potential of the Indian Air Force. The above noteworthy achievements were possible mainly due Gp Capt Sreekanth's personal example and his great enthusiasm for flying.

Under his professional guidance, the Unit, while successfully fulfilling its training commitments, also ensure Op continuity training of its staff pilots as a result the Unit is now fully geared to meet its wartime role with the same degree of confidence.

The Unit was adjudged as the 'Overall Champion' for two years. It also bagged F/G and Bombing trophies (1989) and the level R/P trophy (1990) besides number of individual events.

For his dynamic leadership, unflinching and exceptional devotion to duty, meticulous planning and very high professional standards, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Gp Capt KP Sreekanth.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal
Wg Cdr Nitin Madhukar Gupte 11847 F(P)Unit : Tactics and Combat Development Establishment  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr Nitin Madhukar Gupte has been on the posted strength of TACDE, AF with effect from 24 Feb 88.

During his tenure at TACDE, he has worked with an extremely high sense of devotion and dedication to his assignment. The recent changes in the air environment with the induction of lethal air-to-air missiles of the BVR and all aspect category, have led to a complete revolution in concepts of air combat. The task of developing new tactics therefore called for revision of the basic theories of combat, which have existed since the early days of aerial warfare. This task was undertaken by Wg Cdr Gupte in a very highly professional manner. A very comprehensive and meticulous report for manoeuvring in the air, encompassing the entire gamut of air combat operations was prepared by Wg Cdr Gupte.

During his tenure at TACDE, Wg Cdr Gupte has worked with a very keen sense of devotion towards the tasks assigned to him. His quality of placing service interests always ahead of personal interests have been a shining example to all.

For his devotion, dedication and professional ability of the highest order, the President is pleased to award Vayu Sena Medal to Wg Cdr NM Gupte.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal
Wg Cdr Anil Kumar Adya 12010 F(P)Unit : AirHQ Communications Squadron  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr Anil Kumar Adya was posted to Air HQ Communication Squadron, AF. He has flown more than 3000 Hours on Boeing 737 aircraft and has a total of 8000 hours of accident-free flying to his credit.

On 16 Jan 90, Wg Cdr Adya was detailed to fly as a check pilot on Boeing-737. The route was Delhi-Lucknow-Varanasi. As he gained altitude en route to Varanasi, he heard a pilot of the Piper aircraft calling Lucknow. The Piper pilot appeared to be lost. He was trainee pilot who had taken off from Lucknow for Faizabad due east about 70 NM for a solo cross country by day. He had got lost and had tried to come back to Lucknow. By then night had fallen. Since he had never flown at night in his life, he did not know what to do.

Wg Cdr Adya discontinued the training flight to Varanasi to search for the lost aircraft and render all assistance. He immediately turned towards the track from Lucknow to Faizabad, switched on all his landing and wing lights and asked the Piper pilot to switch on his landing lights to increase the chances of spotting either aircraft.

He continuously kept the morale of the Piper pilot by reassuring him that he would be found. A few minutes later, the Piper pilot reported seeing the lights of a city. Wg Cdr Adya asked him to head for the city and then modified his search plan. Finally the Piper pilot was helped to land safely.

For his exceptional devotion to duty, professional competence, calm and cool manner the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Wg Cdr AK Adya.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal
Wg Cdr Saravjit Singh Hothi 12215 F(P)Unit : No.31 Squadron  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr Sarvajit Singh Hothi has been commanding an operational squadron with effect from 10 Jun 88. His systematic approach, quest for excellence and the stress laid on training of Sqn pilots enhanced the operational status of the Sqn. His planning and approach to operational status ensured that all night strike qualified pilots successfully undertook live heavy armament stores firing at a range.

The task of planning and co-ordinating of night exercises was entrusted to Wg Cdr Hothi. His meticulous planning and effective co-ordination involving different fleet was exemplary.

Wg Cdr Hothi has flown nearly 1000 hrs on MiG-23 BN ac, all accident free. He has a total of 4055 hrs to his credit on single engine jet aircraft.

For his professional excellence, zeal, contribution towards operational preparedness, leadership, devotion to duty, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Wg Cdr SS Hothi.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal
Wg Cdr Tejbir Singh Pandhawa 12947 F(P)Unit : No.20 Squadron  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr Tejbir Singh Randhawa was commissioned in the IAF as a Flying (Pilot) on 22 Jan 72,

On 04 Jul 88, Wg Cdr Randhawa took over the Command of a fighter squadron. This was the time when most of the experienced team members were posted out. He had the dual responsibility of selection and training of new members, to form a 9 aircraft close formation aerobatics team, in a limited time frame which also included the monsoon period. Over and above this, he was also tasked to train U/T Ops Pilots from OCU. The grand finale came in Mar 89, when the 9 aircraft display at a range for Air Power Demonstration, held the spectators spell bound.

In Oct 89, the close formation aerobatics role was suspended and the Sqn was asked to change over to operational role. Wg Cdr Randhawa accepted this change willingly and improved upon the Ops status of the Sqn Pilots to a very high percentage and the rating status to 100% in a veritably short span of time. This achievement ensured the squadron's participation in Inter-Squadron Gunnery Meet 'EKLAVAYA' where the unit proved its worth by winning trophies for the individual events.

For his excellent professionalism, sustained hard work beyond the call of duty, selfless devotion to duty and qualities of leadership, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Wg Cdr TS Randhawa.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)
Sqn Ldr Kottukonam Neelakantan Gopakumaran Nair 14295 F(P)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Sqn Ldr Kottukonam Neelakantan Gopakumaran Nair is on the posted strength of one of the helicopter units with effect from 22 Aug 1988.

Sqn Ldr Kottukonam Neelakantan Gopakumaran Nair is a veteran pilot with over 4200 flying hours to his credit. He had undertaken over 750 missions in OP PAWAN including 45 missions by night. All these missions were flown over an extremely hostile and unfamiliar terrain under constant exposure to enemy ground fire.

The very fact that Sqn Ldr Kottukonam Neelakantan Gopakumaran Nair undeterred, undertook 14 casualty evacuation missions by night in the thick of enemy fire and in adverse weather conditions, speaks volumes of his devotion to the service and the display of his courage.

For his high standard of professional skill, dedication to duty and to the service and the display of courage in the face of the enemy, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Sqn Ldr Kottukonam Neelakantan Gopakumaran Nair.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)
Sqn Ldr Har Pal Singh Natt 14281 F(P)Unit : Indian Scientific Expedit  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Sqn Ldr Harjinder Pal Singh Natt is on the posted strength of one of the Air Force Helicopter Units since 30 Jul 88.

Sqn Ldr Natt was a member of the VIII Antarctica Expedition because of wide experience on Mi-8 and Chetak helicopters. He has flown a total of 186 hrs and over 370 sorties in the treacherous Antarctica environment, which is a record.

On 08 Jan 90, Sqn Ldr Natt was Captain of the aircraft, which landed at a Camp, to discover the tragedy leaving four expedition members dead. Overcoming the initial shock, he helped evacuating the dead to Maitri camp. On 13 Feb 90, the expedition doctor Major CS Joshi slipped on hard plus ice and was seriously injured. Sqn Ldr Natt, with his presence of mind immediately prepared a sling and administered first aid to Major Joshi. On getting airborne from the accident site with casualty on board it was found that both, the expedition leader and the senior surgeon, whose presence was necessary for further medical treatment, were away from Maitri camp. Sqn Ldr Natt immediately took charge of the situation and went to locate the senior surgeon. Sqn Ldr Natt's professional skill, determination in evacuating the causality and yet carrying on with the tasks at hand were of the highest order.

For his selfless sacrifices, skill and determination in evacuating the causality under the most trying circumstances, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Sqn Ldr HPS Natt

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)
Sqn Ldr Diwakar Dattatreya Kulkarni 15041 F(P)Unit : MiG Operational Flying Training Unit  Award Date 17 Jan 90 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Sqn Ldr Diwakar Dattatraya Kulkarni is on the posted strength of MiG Operational Flying Training Unit (MOFTU) since 22 Jun 87.

On 17 Jan 90, he was leading a four aircraft low level strike in a Type-77 aircraft. Approximately 75 Kilometers from base, he ordered a controlled scatter manoeuvre. For this, the formation engaged reheat and turned 30°, accelerating to 1000 IAS. At 1000 IAS Sqn Ldr Kulkarni switched off reheat and noticed his fire warning light on. He immediately gave a call and eased up in a climbing turn towards base. As his speed dropped to 500 IAS Sqn Ldr Kulkarni operated the fire extinguisher but the fire warning light continued to illuminate. He climbed to three kilometers to level out below cloud. In the climb, he also noticed his main hydraulic warning light coming on and pressure reading 50 Kg/cm2. As a precaution, he switched off his aileron booster and auto pilot and noticed that his JPT/rpm were normal indicating that the jet nozzle had closed. Approaching overhead base, at height, he lowered his undercarriage on emergency. The cone did not retract and remained at 95%. He attempted to retract the cone manually but was unsuccessful as the main hydraulic pressure was now 30 Kg/cm2. Sqn Ldr Kulakarni then correctly elected to carry out a descending circuit. He made a flapless approach, landed safely and switched off on landing.

For his cool professionalism and undaunted courage in the face of a serious and complex emergency, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Sqn Ldr Kulkarni.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)
Sqn Ldr Sudhir Vishwamurti Bal 15552 F(P)Unit : No.224 Squadron  Award Date 23 Mar 90 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Sqn Ldr Sudhir Vishwamurti Bal is on the posted strength of one of the Air Force Squadrons with effect from 21 Aug 89. On 23 Mar 90, he was authorized to fly a procedure sortie by night during dark phase. While carrying out an instrument let down, he experienced a case of severe engine surge at a height of 5 Kms. The RPM of the engine dropped and the JPT (Jet Pipe Temperature) started rising abnormally, while the 'engine overheat' light came on. He analysed the situation correctly and promptly switched off the engine. Thereafter, a successful relight was carried out by him. However, on opening throttle, the engine surged once again forcing him to switch off the engine for second time. By this time, the aircraft had descended to a height below 3 Kms. Again, he carried out a relight successfully, descending below 2 Kms in the process of relight. While carrying out the relight, he skillfully positioned himself to carry out a descending circuit and landed the aircraft safely, with minimum use of RPM.

Sqn Ldr SV Bal has displayed exemplary professionalism and extraordinary courage in the best traditions of the Air Force. In recognition of his professionalism and courageous act, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Sqn Ldr SV Bal.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)
Flt Lt Gopalkrishanan Sreepal Warrier 16549 AE(M)Unit : 21 Wing  Award Date 13 Jul 90 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Flt Lt Gopalkrishanan Sreepal Warrier is on the posted strength of an Air Force Wing since 07 Dec 89 and has been working as Senior Engineer (mechanical).

On 03 Jul 90, one Chetak helicopter flown by Flt Lt MV Rao had to be left behind at Amar post due to engine failure. Change of engine to retrieve the helicopter from Amar post situated at 19000 ft AMSL and pressure altitude of 23000' in the face of random shelling and on the actual line of control, was a challenging task by any standards.

Flt Lt Sreepal volunteered to take upon himself the uphill task of replacing the engine at site. Notwithstanding the adverse weather condition and enemy shelling during the process of changing the engine by the team to successfully do the job which started at 1800 hours on 12 Jul 90 and ended at 0900 hrs on 13 Jul 90. The helicopter was flown out at 1740 hrs on 13 Jul 90.

For his exemplary courage, single-mindedness of purpose, determination and professionalism, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Flt Lt Gopalkrishanan Sreepal Warrier.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)
Fg Offr Shailendra Sood 19181 F(P)Unit : No.142 SSS Flight  Award Date 11 Nov 88 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Fg Offr Shailender Sood has been on the posted strength of 142 SSS Flight since Dec 88. He holds A 'C' White status with 250 hours on type.

He was detachment commander of a Chetak Helicopter of 142 SSS Flight at 5 Wing. On 11 Nov 88 at 2020 hrs, he was called upon to rescue a pilot who had ejected from a Hunter aircraft. He acted with methodical proficiency and getting airborne within a commendable time of 40 minutes. He was guided by Air Traffic Control to the last known position of the crashed aircraft. Though it was moonlit night, the visibility started to deteriorate. Unmindful he pressed on and spotted a cartridge fired by the ejected pilot. He carried out a reconnaissance of the area and promptly landed with precision. Thereafter he returned to the base with the injured pilot. Fg Offr Sood, in this act of singular valour, achieved the very first night pick up of any ejected aircrew in a Chetak helicopter.

For displaying extremely high sense of duty, ability to take and execute a professionally calculated decision and bravery of a very high order, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Fg Off Shalinder Sood.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)
MWO Davinder Singh Bindra 228616 ORUnit : 125 Sqn  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

MWO Davinder Singh Bindra was on the posted strength of one of the Helicopter Units since 19 Mar 84. As one of the pioneers of the unit trained in Soviet Unit, MWO Bindra has been performing the duties of Engineer Leader in the Unit.

In Oct 87 when the Unit detachment moved for `Ops Pawan' , MWO Bindra was one of the first aircrew to land in Sri Lanka and subsequently first to undertake live mission. Since then he has been a vigorous participant in the operational area having 108 missions and 97:10 operational hours in `Ops Pawan' besides having flown 4400 hours on various types of helicopter in Indian Air force.This MWO proved his worth during Operation Checkmate. There was extensive use of Akbar helicopter in Nitikaikulan area using varying armament configurations. Realising the sensitive nature of these operations, he decided to be in the cockpit in every mission. With total disregard to his personal comforts, over a period of one month from 28 Jun 88 to 28 Jul, he flew as part of aircrew in 58 missions and 42:05 hours.

For his exemplary hard work, courageous actions and devotion to duty, the President is pleased to award Vayu Sena Medal to MWO Davinder Singh Bindra

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal
Sgt Yoganandam Kalluri 659174 ORUnit : No.114 Helicopter Unit  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Sgt Yoganandam Kalluri is on the posted strength of one of the Air Force Helicopter Units since 13 Jan 90.

On 03 Jul 90, a helicopter had to be left behind at Amar due to engine flame out on ground. The retrieval of the helicopter was planned after an engine change. Amar helipad is at a height of 19000' AMSL and on the Actual Line of Control, within range of enemy artillery fire. The post is constantly shelled by the enemy.

The engine was flown to Amar on 12 Jul 90. During this period the post was under enemy shelling, when Sgt Yoganandam under instruction of Flt Lt Sreepal, Officer incharge of the team, assisted the offloading of the engine. The task of engine change could commence only in the evening due to enemy shelling. Sgt Yoganandam with the help of other technicians carried out the engine change during the night with the help of kerosene lamps and torches. Finally the helicopter was flown out at 1740 hours on 13 Jul 90.

For his exceptional devotion to duty, selfless service and thorough professionalism, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Sgt Yoganandam Kalluri.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)
Wg Cdr Conard Anthony Dalton 12430 F(N)Unit : No.6 Squadron  Award Date Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr CA Dalton is on the posted strength of No. 6 Squadron, AF since 23 Nov 84. He has spent 13 years of his service career in a Canberra Squadron and has to his credit an impressive 6200 hrs of flying, all of it accident­free. He has the unequalled distinction of having the maximum flying hours not only among the Canberra Navigators in the Indian Air Force, but also those of the transport fleet. This indeed is a unique achievement.

Wg Cdr Dalton has flown Canberra aircraft in all its multifarious roles, viz. bombing, Reconnaissance, Survey, Maritime strike and Target Towing. He was also assigned tasks associated with the demarcation of the IndoBhutan border in 1982.

On 30 Oct 87, when on a low level tactical sortie, while carrying out a simulated high speed attack, his Canberra suffered a massive bird strike on the nose section of the aircraft. Wg Cdr Dalton who was then in the nose section navigating saved his head from being shattered while suffering multiple injuries on his face and hands. Inspite of bleeding profusely, he navigated the aircraft safely back to base.

For his consistently outstanding achievements in flying, administrative skills and enthusiasm of an exceptional order, the President is pleased to award Vayu Seva Medal to Wg Cdr CA Dalton.

Reference: Gazette of India dated 24th August 1991 - No.3-Pres/91 dated 26th January 1991 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Kadavil Ravivaraman Radhakrishnan 6162 ADMUnit : Air Force Records Office  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Kadavil Ravivaraman Radhakrishnan was commissioned in the IAF on 27 May 61 in the Administrative Branch. During his service career this officer has acquitted the given responsibility in an exemplary manner. Professionally he is highly competent and committed to the service.

During his tenure as Chief Administrative Officer of Jamnagar, Tambaram and Pune, he displayed tremendous skill and capability to match the requirements of operational, maintenance and administrative tasks of three of the most important stations of the Air Force. By sheer example and devotion to duty, he was able to iron out their respective administrative problems and all these stations were rated high during his tenure by the Air Staff and Maintenance Inspections Teams. This speaks volumes of the dedicated leadership and high degree of skill displayed by this individual.

Gp Capt Radhakrishnan was posted to Air Force Record Office on 19 Oct 87. This officer has been assigned the task as O/C Drafting to deal with placements and postings. The entire placement and posting data has been computerised because of his hard work and understanding the needs of this modern management philosophy. His professional competence of the highest order has lent credence and dignity to the job requirements and brought laurels to the service.

For his dedication to service and devotion of an exceptional order, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt KR Radhakrishnan.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Raghuram Ramanathan 6201 ACCTUnit : College of Defence Management  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt R Raghuram has been on the posted strength of the College of Defence Management as a Directing Staff from Jul 81 to Apr 84 and again from 01 Jul 85 to date. Throughout his long tenure of eight years, Gp Capt Raghuram has made a very substantial contribution in enhancing the quality of training at the College and thereby adding to its academic repute.

During his first tenure, Gp Capt Raghuram, as Head of Department of Financial Management, brought to bear his vast and varied experiences in the field and translated these into useful and meaningful class room discussions. It was entirely due to his untiring hard work and ability to put across a difficult subject like Financial Management, that the discipline came to be regarded as one of the best conducted at the College. Gp Capt Raghuram authored a handbook on "Financial Management in Defence Services", which became an instant success.

On his re-posting to the College in Jul 85, Gp Capt Raghuram volunteered for a change of discipline and switched over as Head of Department, Organisation Systems and Perspective Planning in the Faculty of Organisation Behaviour. He revised and updated the College handbook on "Organisat ional Effectiveness", which is today considered as a guide by his colleagues and the Faculty.

For his untiring work, total commitment and dedication beyond the call of duty, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt R Raghuram.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Amrit Lal 6801 AE(M)Unit : Western Air Command  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Amrit Lal has been working as Command Engineering Officer 'A' since August, 1988. He is responsible to look after the entire MiG Fleet under Western Air Command. During his tenure, he managed reequipment of two squadrons. He kept a close watch on the re-equipment of these squadrons and intervened to prevent bottlenecks and hold ups by thorough planning and intelligent anticipation. He also monitored the training programme for officers and technicians and ensured that adequate trained manpower was available in time to the squadrons to maintain new aircraft. The MiG fleet was plagued with problems in the year 1988-89 and 1989-90. Gp Capt Amrit Lal monitored these problems with great care and patience, he worked late hours to get the correct picture and apprise the authorities of the action to be taken.

He contacted the technical officers at the Wings and the Squadrons during the period every day and kept their morale high by encouraging them to come to grips with the problems faced by them. The MiG fleet is already on the way to recovery. Gp Capt Amrit Lal has contributed significantly towards its rejuvenation.

For his hard work, professional approach, selfless and indomitable effort under adverse circumstances, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt Amrit Lal.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Prem Datt Badoni 7085 AE(L)Unit : No.17 Squadron  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Prem Datt Badoni was on the posted strength of one of the Air Force Signal Units since 01 Aug 87.

Gp Capt Badoni as Commanding Officer of the premier high technology electronic unit, displayed innovative management skills in guiding and motivating personnel of his unit. Under his command, his unit successfully repaired a record number of 325 Sub-assemblies of complex electronic equipment during 1988-89 as against the allotted task of 240. In 1989-90, his unit surpassed all previous records by repairing 374 subassemblies with no extra manpower. Like previous years, in 1989-90 also, his unit saved Rs. 54 lakh in FEE by way of repair of super components. This was possible because of great devotion to duty and untiring efforts put up by Gp Capt Badoni and his unit in marshalling optimum technical, logistics and administrative resources.

In Jul 88, trained manpower was urgently required for activating EW equipment at one of our modern fighter bases. Gp Capt Badoni willingly accepted the challenge of conducting training in current state of the art EW equipment for the first time in India at his unit. With his personal involvement and hard work, despite the shortage of trained manpower, he enhanced the operational capabilities of the Air Force.

For his exceptional devotion to duty and achievements, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt PD Badoni.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Swaran Singh Banga 8100 F(P)Unit : 8 Forward Base Support Unit  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Swaran Singh Banga has been commanding an Air Force Station since 28 Nov 88. During his tenure as Station Commander, the officer showed high leadership qualities resulting in significant enhancement in the operational potential of this base.

Being a Forward Base Support Unit, it has been planned to have limited manpower and material resources commensurate with its envisaged tasks. However, due to overall shortages in the Air Force, the station suffered further cuts in its manpower placing its already meagre resources under considerable strain.

This base is one of the most important forward air fields of WAC. Due to the prevailing Indo-Pak tension over the last 7-8 months, the base has had to be activated operationally a number of times. Detachments of various types of aircraft have operated from this base on a number of occasions. Despite the serious constraints, Gp Capt Banga had harnessed the resources placed under his command admirably well and provided support of a very high order, thereby contributing to the operational preparedness of the IAF. His management and re-organisation of resources to strengthen, the defences of his base against internal security threats have been most effective and praiseworthy.

For the outstanding leadership qualities displayed by him, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt SS Banga.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Mrityunjai Singh 8294 AE(L)Unit : 7 Base Repair Depot  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Mritunjai Singh was on the posted strength of one of the Base Repair Depots Air Force on 14 Jul 86.

As Chief of Production, Gp Capt Singh with his dynamism, foresight and planning ability of a high order, succeeded in infusing the spirit of 'Excellence' as a watch word in the production culture at this Depot. Gp Capt Singh contributed immensely for its preeminent position as the BRD in Maintenance Command topping in production over successive years.

Gp Capt Singh took up repair of antenna post of a Pechora Squadron considered as damaged beyond repair in a road accident. Another outstanding feat was the repair carried out by the depot to modern ST-68U Radar and its power plant.

Besides normal production, enhancement of operational efficiency was the basic theme of the officer in his sustained efforts to render assistance to field units. This effort of the officer created a total confidence in the field units on the product support provided by this depot for sustained operations.

For his most significant achievement in the Depot, exemplary professionalism, hard work and dedication, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt M Singh.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Devinder Singh Saggu 8805 AE(L)Unit : 1 Guided Weapons Training Institute  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Devinder Singh Saggu was in command of one of the Guided Weapons Training Institutes.

As the Commandant of the training institute, Gp Capt Saggu remarkably measured up to the requirements of Air Headquarters. Due to emergent operational deployment of (GW) Squadrons, Air HQ tapered down the duration of course from 24 weeks to 16 weeks. Undeterred by heavy odds and constraints, Gp Capt Saggu successfully completed the course within the time frame laid down.

Under the dynamic leadership of Gp Capt Saggu, GW Squadrons were raised and despatched which called for exceptional professional competence, organisational skill and coordinating efforts in testing of missile guidance radars and their associated equipment and acquisition/surveillance radars.

One of the most spectacular achievements to the credit of Gp Capt Saggu is the innovative modification devised in the old phased-out power plants of SAM-II system which made these fit for use with the latest system. By devising this modification, besides making effective utilisation of the phased out power plants, Gp Capt Saggu was instrumental in saving for the country more than Rupees Seven Crores in foreign exchange.

For his technical innovative organising ability and inspiring leadership, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt Saggu.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Subhash Chandra Rastogi 8999 F(P)Unit : 501 Signal Unit  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Subhash Chandra Rastogi was commissioned in the IAF on 25 Dec 64. In Mar 88, he took over command of an opera tional and highly sensitive Air Defence unit equipped with a sophisticated modern radar. His total involvement in the operational functioning of the unit was responsible for his unit being declared the best Signal Unit in Western Air Command for two consecutive years.

Gp Capt Rastogi has willingly accepted all additional tasks assigned to his unit irrespective of their nature and performed them in a commendable manner. During his tenure, the co-operation between Fighter Pilots and Fighter Controllers reached new high due to his personal efforts to enhance the output of the Air Defence System. Gp Capt Rastogi carried out a review of the maintenance practices in the unit and has improved the reliability of the radar to a great extent.

For his result-oriented initiative and sustained efforts to upgrade the operational efficiency of his unit, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt SC Rastogi.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Gp Capt Henery Osborne Robey 10166 F(P)Unit : AFS Suryalanka  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Gp Capt Henery Osborne Robey has been posted as the Station Commander, Air Force Station, Suryalanka with effect from 19 Sep 88.

On the night of 09/10 May 90, a severe cyclonic storm with a wind speed of 200kmph hit Air Force Station Suryalanka causing total disruption to communications, power, water supply and damage to Air Force property. In the absence of any civil or Air Force Met establishment at Suryalanka, Gp Capt Robey kept a close watch on the movement of cyclonic storm from TV and Radio transmissions preceding the actual date of occurrence. He geared up the Station to meet the challenge and took advance actions to ensure minimum damage to Air Force property and human life. His actions paid handsome dividends in that there was no loss of life or injury and damage to the property was negligible which could not have been avoided considering the fury of the cyclonic storm. Despite the Station being totally water logged, he reactivated the essential services in the shortest possible time. With his excellent rapport with the P&T and APSEB authorities, he was able to speedily restore electricity and essential telecommunication facilities at the Station.

For his leadership in skillfully managing this disastrous situation and for his dedication of a very high order, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Gp Capt HO Robey.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Wg Cdr Shabda Prakash Tewari 10691 AE(L)Unit : 74 Repair and Maintenance Unit  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr Shabda Prakash Tewari has been working as Officer Commanding of one of the Repair and Maintenance Units since 29 Sep 88. His efforts to keep the old radars in usable condition have positively enhanced air defence capability of South Western Air Command.

Wg Cdr Tewari successfully undertook several projects which enhanced the operational efficiency of the Indian Air Force. Trial modification of radar warning receiver has been successfully completed. This modification has been called 'Force Multiplier' by the CAS. The modification has been accepted by Air HQ for incorporation. Wg Cdr Tewari has also developed two modifications on MiG-23 to provide digital indication of height and time to the pilots.

During 1989, component level repair facilities for printed circuit boards (PCBs) of HF sets used by MOF have been set up at one of the RMUs. Integration of Russian made communication systems with mobile tropo system has been made possible after incorporating some modifications at the RMU. This has enhanced communication capabilities in SWAC.

For his outstanding contribution to improve operational efficiency of the Indian Air Force, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Wg Cdr SP Tewari.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Wg Cdr Subhanka Sekhar Lahiri 11568 AE(L)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr Subhanka Sekhar Lahiri has been on the posted strength of an Air Force Flying unit.

In all activities the job performance of the officer has been of an exceptionally high order. This officer has exhibited extraordinary innovativeness for the benefit of the service. The sight head in a (MiG Variant) considerably reduced the cockpit visibility. Wg Cdr Lahiri took upon himself the task of preparing an aircraft with reflectors removed and again with sight head removed for flight trials. The aircraft was flight tested and the Squadron pilots confirmed that cockpit visibility during landing had significantly improved.

Two (MiG) aircraft had met with accident some time back and sustained different degree of damage. They were to be withdrawn, crated and sent to HAL for repair. Displaying considerable boldness, the execution of the task was taken up by Wg Cdr Lahiri. One aircraft was built up assembling the front fuselage of one aircraft and wing, rear fuselage, oleo legs and other rotable of the other aircraft. The engine was also replaced and judicious cannibalisation from other unserviceable aircraft was also resorted to. The aircraft was successfully launched into the air on 29 Apr. 89. This task of creating a new aircraft was completed in a record time.

For his all round capability, innovative skill and high level of leadership qualities, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Wg Cdr SS Lahiri.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Wg Cdr Suresh Chandra Malhan 11579 F(P)Unit : High Commission UK  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr SC Malhan was on the posted strength of High Commission in England as Deputy Air Adviser. He was singularly responsible for procuring, recording and editing various video cassettes on flying training, use of air power, air shows, latest equipment and training material and despatching them to various Air Force units/ establishments. Training value of such material has been greatly appreciated and acknowledged by these institutions.

He had very good interaction with various agencies like MOD (UK), defence industries and the very large attaché community in London. He established excellent working relationship with Foreign Liaison Staff of MOD (UK). This had been of tremendous help not only in the smooth flow of information on various facets of the RAF but had also facilitated coordination of various courses/ visits of IAF officers in the UK.

During his tenure at the mission, he displayed exceptional sense of responsibility, initiative and resourcefulness in improving standards of administration.

For his dedication, devotion to duty and distinguished service of an exceptionally high order, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Wg Cdr SC Malhan.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Wg Cdr Santhanagopalan Chandra Kumar 11801 F(N)Unit : -N.A.- Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Wg Cdr SC Kumar was commissioned in the Navigator Branch of the Indian Air Force on 29 Dec 68. Over the years, he has carried out 4640 hours of flying on a variety of aircraft; excelling in each. He has been holding the exceptional flying category 'A' for nearly a decade on Avro and modern B-737 aircraft. He is also a Qualified Navigation Instructor.

Wg Cdr Kumar was appointed Commanding Officer of the Navigation & Signal School on 16 Nov 86. He took over this Command at a crucial juncture, as the training of ab-initio navigators had remained suspended for the preceding four years. Through professionalism and sheer hard work, WG Cdr Kumar not only achieved the desired task but also set high standards of training.

After the successful command of Navigation & Signal School, Wg Cdr SC Kumar was given his present challenging appointment of Deputy Director (VIP) in the Directorate of Operations (T&M) at Air HQ on 03 Oct 88. The officer displayed flawless planning when he had to face the mammoth task of providing VVIP airlifts during the Lok Sabha elections in Nov 89.

For his devotion to duty, sincerity of purpose and capacity for sustained hark work, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Wg Cdr SC Kumar.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

Vishist Seva Medal
Sqn Ldr Pawan Seth 12705 LGSUnit : Air Head Quarters  Award Date 26 Jan 91 Announced 26 Jan 91
Details :

Sqn Ldr Pawan Seth was commissioned in the IAF in Jun 71 and has since held varied important field and staff appointments.

Sqn Ldr Seth took over as the Mess Secretary, Air Force Officers' Mess, Air Headquarters on 01 Dec 88. Through his dedication and hard work, he has brought about perceivable changes in the Mess premises within a short span. His methodical approach and systematic handling of financial activities of the Mess has brought about significant procedural changes resulting into growth of funds.

He has won appreciation on all occasions of traditional functions of the IAF like BiAnnual Commanders' Conference; CAS's 'At Home' during Air Force Day; Promotion Boards, etc. He has particularly excelled in providing excellent services to a very large number of retired Senior Officers who are members of the Mess.

Sqn Ldr Seth, single handedly has brought about remarkable improvements in living accommodation for senior officers, permanent and transit officers; style and quality of messservices, comforts and amenities; discipline in the Mess staff. For his exceptional managerial skill, courteous and tactful behaviour, the President is pleased to award Vishisht Seva Medal to Sqn Ldr Pawan Seth.

Reference: Gazette of India Notification Dated : 26 Jan 1991 Number: 

The Awards Database presented here was made possible by the kind generosity of Air Marshal Bharat Kumar, author of Courage & Devotion to Duty : A Chronicle of IAF's Honours and Awards (1932-2008). Air Marshal Bharat Kumar had very graciously given permission to reproduce the citations from the book on this website.
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